113 The Skilled Man

MN 03-02-03 Sappurisa Sutta

Exposition by Ven Ajahn Brahmvamso

§ 1.THUS HAVE I HEARD.
On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Sāvatthī in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.”—“Venerable sir,” they replied.
The Blessed One said this:

§ 2 “Bhikkhus, I shall teach you the character of a skillful person and the character of an unskillful person.1064
Listen and attend closely to what I shall say.”—
“Yes, venerable sir,” the bhikkhus replied.
The Blessed One said this:

[1064: Sappurisa-dhamma; asappurisa-dhamma]

§ 3 “Bhikkhus, what is the character of an unskillful person?

Here an unskillful person who has gone forth from an aristocratic family considers thus:
‘I have gone forth from an aristocratic family; but these other bhikkhus have not gone forth from aristocratic families. ’

So he praises himself and disparages others because of his aristocratic family.
This is the character of an unskillful person.

“But a skillful person considers thus:
‘It is not because of one’s aristocratic family, that states of craving, intolerance, or delusion are destroyed. Even though someone may not have gone forth from an aristocratic family, yet if he has entered upon the way that accords with the Dhamma, entered upon the proper way of eightfold path, [38] and conducts himself according to the Dhamma, he should be honoured for that, he should be praised for that.’
So, putting the practice of the way first, he neither lauds himself nor disparages others because of his aristocratic family.
This is the character of a skillful person.

§4- §6 . “Moreover, an unskillful person who has gone forth from a great family…
from a wealthy family…
from an influential family considers thus:
‘I have gone forth from an influential family; but these other bhikkhus have not gone forth from influential families. ’
So he lauds himself and disparages others because of his influential family.
This too is the character of an unskillful person

“But a skillful person considers thus:
It is not because of one’s influential family that states of greed, hatred, or delusion are destroyed. Even though someone may not have gone forth from an influential family, yet if he has entered upon the way that accords with the Dhamma, entered upon the proper way, and conducts himself according to the Dhamma, he should be honoured for that, he should be praised for that.
So, putting the practice of the way first, he neither lauds himself nor disparages others because of his influential family.
This too is the character of a skillful person.

§7 “Moreover, an unskillful person who is well known and famous, considers thus:
‘I am well known and famous; but these other bhikkhus are unknown and of no account.’
So he lauds himself and disparages others because of his renown.
This too is the character of an unskillful person.

“But a skillful person considers thus:
It is not because of one’s renown that states of greed, hatred, or delusion are destroyed. Even though someone may not be well known and famous, yet if he has entered upon the way that accords with the Dhamma, entered upon the proper way, and conducts himself according to the
Dhamma, he should be honoured for that, he should be praised for that.

So, putting the practice of the way first, he neither lauds himself nor disparages others because of his renown. This too is the character of a skillful person. [39]

§8 “Moreover, an unskillful person who gains robes, almsfood, resting places, and requisites of medicine considers thus: ‘I gain robes, almsfood, resting places, and requisites of medicine; but these other bhikkhus do not gain these things.’

So he lauds himself and disparages others because of gain.
This too is the character of an unskillful person.

“But a skillful person considers thus:
It is not because of gain that states of greed, hatred, or delusion are destroyed. Even though someone has no gain, yet if he has entered upon the way that accords with the Dhamma, entered upon the proper way, and conducts himself according to the Dhamma, he should be honoured for that, he should be praised for that.’

So, putting the practice of the way first, he neither lauds himself nor disparages others because of gain.
This too is the character of a skillful person.

§ 9. “Moreover, an untrue man who is learned…
§ 10. who is expert in the Discipline…[40]…
§ 11. who is a preacher of the Dhamma…
§ 12 .who is a forest dweller…
§ 13 .who is a refuse-rag wearer…[41]…
§ 14. an almsfood eater…
§ 15. a tree-root dweller…
§ 16 .…a charnel-ground dweller…
§ 17. an open-air dweller…
§ 18. a continual sitter…
§ 19. an any bed dweller…. an open-air dweller…a continual sitter…an any-bed user…
§ 20. a one-session eater considers thus:
‘I am a one-session eater; but these other bhikkhus are not one-session eaters.’1065

[1065:- These are nine of the thirteen ascetic practices discussed in Vsm II. The “continual sitter” (nesajjika) observes the practice of never lying down but of sleeping in the sitting posture]

So he lauds himself and disparages others because of his being a one-session eater.
This too is the character of an unskillful person.

“But a skillful person considers thus:
‘It is not because of being a one-session eater that states of greed, hatred, or delusion are destroyed. Even though someone may not be a one-session eater, yet if he has entered upon the way that accords with the Dhamma, entered upon the proper way, and conducts himself according to the Dhamma, he should be honoured for that, he should be praised for that.’

So, putting the practice of the way first, he neither lauds himself nor disparages others because of his being a one-session eater.
This too is the character of a skillful person.

§21 .“Moreover, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, an untrue man enters upon and abides in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. He considers thus:
‘I have gained the attainment of the first jhāna; but these other bhikkhus have not gained the attainment of the first jhāna.’

So he lauds himself and disparages others because of his attainment of the first jhāna.
This too is the character of an unskillful person.

“But a skillful person considers thus:
‘Non-ownership even with the experience of the first jhāna has been declared by the Blessed One; for in whatever way they conceive, the fact is ever other than that.’1066 [43]

[1066:- MA explains “non-identification” (atammayat̄a, (DOWNLOAD ) lit. “not consisting of that”) as the absence of craving. However, the context suggests that the absence of conceit may be the meaning. The statement “for in whatever way they conceive, the fact is ever other than that” (yena yena hi maññanti tato taṁ hoti aññathā) is a philosophical riddle appearing also at Sn 588, Sn 757, and Ud 3:10. Though MA is silent, the Ud̄na commentary (to Ud 3:10) explains it to mean that in whatever way worldly people conceive any of the five aggregates—as self or self’s belonging, etc.—the thing conceived turns out to be other than the aspect ascribed to it: it is not self or self’s belonging, not “I” or “mine.”]

So, putting non-identification first, he neither lauds himself nor disparages others because of the experience of the first jhāna.
This too is the character of a skillful person.

§ 22. “Moreover, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, an unskillful person enters upon and abides in the second jhāna…
So, putting non-ownership first, he neither lauds himself nor disparages others because of his attainment of the second jhāna.
This too is the character of a skillful person.

§ 23. With the fading away as well of rapture…he enters upon and abides in the third jhāna…
So, putting non-ownership first, he neither lauds himself nor disparages others because of experiencing of the third jhāna.
This too is the character of a skillful person.

§ 24. With the abandoning of pleasure and pain…he enters upon and abides in the fourth jhāna…So, putting non-ownership first, he neither lauds himself nor disparages others because of the experience of the fourth jhāna.
This too is the character of a skillful person.

§ 25 . “Moreover, with the complete surmounting of perceptions of form, with the disappearance of perceptions of sensory impact, with non-attention to perceptions of diversity, aware that ‘space is infinite,’ an untrue man enters upon and abides in the base of infinite space…

§ 26. “Moreover, by completely surmounting the base of infinite space, aware that ‘consciousness is indefinite,’ an unskillful person enters upon and abides in the base of indefinite consciousness……

§ 27 . “Moreover, by completely surmounting the base of indefinite consciousness, aware that ‘there is nothing,’ an unskillful person enters upon and abides in the base of nothingness…

§ 28. “Moreover, by completely surmounting the base of nothingness, an unskillful person enters upon and abides in the base of neither-perception-nor-nonperception.
He considers thus:
‘I have gained the experience of the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception; but these other bhikkhus have not experienced of the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. ’

So he lauds himself and disparages others because of experience of the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception.
This too is the character of an unskillful person.

“But a skillful person considers thus:
‘Non-ownership even with the experience of the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception has been declared by the Blessed One; for in whatever way they conceive, the fact is ever other than that.’
So, putting non-ownership first, he neither lauds himself nor disparages others because of the experience of the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception.
This too is the character of a skillful person. [45]

§ 29. “Moreover, by completely surmounting the base of neither-perception-nor-non- perception, a skillful person enters upon and abides in the cessation of perception and feeling1067. And his taints are destroyed by seeing with wisdom.

[1067:- It should be noted that there is no passage on the unskillful person entering the cessation of perception and feeling. Unlike the jhānas and immaterial attainments, which can be attained by worldlings, cessation is the domain exclusively of non-returners and arahants.]

This bhikkhu does not conceive anything, he does not conceive in regard to anything, he does not conceive in any way.”1068

[1068:- Na kiñci maññati, na kuhiñci maññati, na kenaci maññati.
This is a brief statement of the same situation described in full at MN 1.51–146. On “conceiving”
The Pali verb “conceives” (maññati), from the root man, “to think,” is often used in the Pali suttas to mean distortional thinking—thought that ascribes to its object characteristics and a significance derived not from the object itself, but from one’s own subjective imaginings. The cognitive distortion introduced by conceiving consists, in brief, in the intrusion of the egocentric perspective into the experience already slightly distorted by spontaneous perception. According to the commentaries, the activity of conceiving is governed by three defilements, which account for the different ways it comes to manifestation—craving (taṇh̄ ) , conceit (m̄na ), and views (dị̣hi).

MA paraphrases this text thus: “Having perceived earth with a perverted perception, the ordinary person afterwards conceives it—construes or
discriminates it—through the gross proliferating tendencies (papañca) of craving, conceit, and views, which are here called ‘conceivings. ’…He
apprehends it in diverse ways contrary [to reality].”
The four ways of conceiving (maññan̄): The Buddha shows that the conceiving of any object may occur in any of four ways, expressed by the text as a fourfold linguistic pattern: accusative, locative, ablative, and appropriative.
The primary significance of this modal pattern—enigmatic in the Pali as well—seems to be ontological. I take the pattern to represent the diverse ways in which the ordinary person attempts to give positive being to his imagined sense of egohood by positing, below the threshold of reflection, a relationship between himself as the subject of cognition and the perceived phenomenon as its object.

According to the fourfold pattern given, this relationship may be one either of direct identification (“he conceives X”), or of inherence (“he conceives in X”), or of contrast or derivation (“he conceives from X”), or of simple appropriation (“he conceives X to be ‘mine’”).
But care is needed in interpreting these phrases. The Pali does not supply any direct object for the second and third modes, and this suggests that the process at work in conceiving proceeds from a deeper and more general level than that involved in the forming of an explicit view of self, as described for example at MN 2.8 or MN 44.7. The activity of conceiving thus seems to comprise the entire range of subjectively tinged cognition, from the impulses and thoughts in which the sense of personal identity is still inchoate to elaborate intellectual structures in which it has been fully explicated.
Ñm, however, understands the implicit object of conceiving to be the percept itself, and accordingly translates: “having had from earth a percept of earth, he conceives [that to be] earth, he conceives [that to be] in earth, he conceives [that to be apart] from earth,” etc.
The fifth phrase, “he delights in X,” explicitly connects conceiving with craving, which is elsewhere said to “delight here and there.” This, moreover, hints at the danger in the worldling’s thought processes, since craving is pointed to by the Buddha as the origin of suffering.
MA gives prolific examples illustrating all the different modes of conceiving, and these clearly establish that the intended object of conceiving is the misplaced sense of egoity. ]

That is what the Blessed One said.

The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

077 Mahā Sakuludāyi Sutta

The Greater Discourse to Sakuludāyin

Sutta Exposition Talk 1 – Bhikku Bodi
Sutta Exposition Talk 2 – Bhikku Bodhi


§1. THUS HAVE I HEARD.
On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Rājagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary.

§ 2. Now on that occasion a number of well-known wanderers were staying at the Peacocks’ Sanctuary, the wanderers’ park—that is, Annabhāra, Varadhara, and the wanderer Sakuludāyin, as well as other well-known wanderers.

§3 . Then, when it was morning, the Blessed One dressed, and taking his bowl and outer robe, went into Rājagaha for alms. Then he thought: “It is still too early to wander for alms in Rājagaha. Suppose I went to the wanderer Sakuludāyin in the Peacocks’ Sanctuary, the wanderers’ park.”

§4. Then the Blessed One went to the Peacocks’ Sanctuary, the wanderers’ park.
Now on that occasion the wanderer Sakuludāyin was seated with a large assembly of wanderers who were making an uproar, loudly and noisily talking many kinds of pointless talk, such as talk of kings, robbers, ministers, armies, dangers, battles, food, drink, clothing, beds, garlands, perfumes, relatives, vehicles, villages, towns, cities, countries, women, heroes, streets, wells, the dead, trifles, the origin of the world, the origin of the sea, [514] whether things are so or are not so.

Then the wanderer Sakuludāyin saw the Blessed One coming in the distance. Seeing him, he quieted his own assembly thus:
Sirs, be quiet; sirs, make no noise. Here comes the recluse Gotama. This venerable one likes quiet and commends quiet. Perhaps if he finds our assembly a quiet one, he will think to join us.”
Then the wanderers became silent.

§5. The Blessed One went to the wanderer Sakuludāyin, who said to him:
Let the Blessed One come, venerable sir! Welcome to the Blessed One! It is longsince the Blessed One found an opportunity to come here. Let the Blessed One be seated; this seat is ready.

The Blessed One sat down on the seat made ready, and the wanderer Sakuludāyin took a low seat and sat down at one side. When he had done so, the Blessed One asked him:

“For what discussion are you sitting together here now, Udāyin?
And what was your discussion that was interrupted?”

§6. “Venerable sir, let be the discussion for which we are now sitting together here. The Blessed One can well hear about it later.

“In recent days, venerable sir, when recluses and brahmins of various sects have been gathering together and sitting together in the debating hall, this topic has arisen: ‘It is a gain for the people of Anga and Magadha, it is a great gain for the people of Anga and Magadha that these recluses and brahmins, heads of orders, heads of groups, teachers of groups, well-known and famous founders of sects regarded by many as saints, have come to spend the Rains at Rājagaha.

There is this Pūraṇa Kassapa, the head of an order, the head of a group, the teacher of a group, the well-known and famous founder of a sect regarded by many as a saint: he has come to spend the Rains at Rājagaha.

There is also this Makkhali Gosāla…
this Ajita Kesakambalin…
this Pakudha Kaccāyana…
this Sañjaya Belaṭṭhiputta…
this Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta, the head of an order, the head of a group, the teacher of a group, [3] the well-known and famous founder of a sect regarded by many as a saint: he too has come to spend the Rains at Rājagaha.

There is also this recluse Gotama, the head of an order, the head of a group, the teacher of a group, the well-known and famous founder of a sect regarded by many as a saint: he too has come to spend the Rains at Rājagaha.

Now among these worthy recluses and brahmins, heads of orders…regarded by many as saints, who is honoured, respected, revered, and venerated by his disciples? And how, honouring and respecting him, do they live in dependence on him?’

“Thereupon some said this: ‘This Pūraṇa Kassapa is the head of an order…
regarded by many as a saint, yet he is not honoured, respected, revered, and venerated by his disciples, nor do his disciples live in dependence on him, honouring and respecting him.

Once Pūraṇa Kassapa was teaching his Dhamma to an assembly of several hundred followers. Then a certain disciple of his made a noise thus:
Sirs, do not ask Pūraṇa Kassapa this question. He does not know that. We know that. Ask us that question. We will answer that for you, sirs.”

It happened that Pūraṇa Kassapa did not get his way, though he waved his arms and wailed:
“Be quiet, sirs, make no noise, sirs. They are not asking you, sirs. They are asking us. We will answer them.” Indeed, many of his disciples left him after refuting his doctrine thus:

“You do not understand this Dhamma and Discipline. I understand this Dhamma and Discipline. How could you understand this Dhamma and Discipline? Your way is wrong. My way is right. I am consistent. You are inconsistent. What should have been said first, you said last. What should have been said last, you said first. What you had so carefully thought up has been turned inside out. Your doctrine is refuted. You are proved wrong. Go and learn better, or disentangle yourself if you can!”

Thus Pūraṇa Kassapa is not honoured, respected, revered, and venerated by his disciples, nor do his disciples live in dependence on him, honouring and respecting him. Indeed, he is scorned by the scorn shown to his Dhamma.’ [4]

“And some said this: ‘This Makkhali Gosāla…
this Ajita Kesakambalin…
this Pakudha Kaccāyana…
this Sañjaya Belaṭṭhiputta…
this Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta is the head of an order…[but he] is not honoured, respected, revered, and venerated by his disciples, nor do his disciples live in dependence on him, honouring and respecting him. Indeed, he is scorned by the scorn shown to his Dhamma.’

“And some said this: ‘This recluse Gotama is the head of an order, the head of a group, the teacher of a group, the well-known and famous founder of a sect regarded by many as a saint. He is honoured, respected, revered, and venerated by his disciples, and his disciples live in dependence on him, honouring and respecting him.

Once the recluse Gotama was teaching his Dhamma to an assembly of several hundred followers and there a certain disciple of his cleared his throat. Thereupon one of his companions in the holy life nudged him with his knee [to indicate]: [5] “Be quiet, venerable sir, make no noise; the Blessed One, the Teacher, is teaching us the Dhamma.”

When the recluse Gotama is teaching the Dhamma to an assembly of several hundred followers, on that occasion there is no sound of his disciples’ coughing or clearing their throats. For then that large assembly is poised in expectancy:
“Let us hear the Dhamma the Blessed One is about to teach.”

Just as though a man were at a crossroads pressing out pure honey and a large group of people were poised in expectancy, so too, when the recluse Gotama is teaching the Dhamma to an assembly of several hundred followers, on that occasion there is no sound of his disciples’ coughing or clearing their throats. For then that large assembly is poised in expectancy: “Let us hear the Dhamma the Blessed One is about to teach.”

And even those disciples of his who fall out with their companions in the holy life and abandon
the training to return to the home life—even they praise the Master and the Dhamma and the Sangha; they blame themselves instead of others, saying:
“We were unlucky, we have little merit; for though we went forth into homelessness in such a well-proclaimed Dhamma, we were unable to live the perfect and pure holy life for the rest of our lives.”

Having become monastery attendants or lay followers, they undertake and observe the five precepts. Thus the recluse Gotama is honoured, respected, revered, and venerated by his disciples, and his disciples live in dependence on him, honouring and respecting him.’”

§ 7 “But, Udāyin, how many qualities do you see in me because of which my disciples honour, respect, revere, and venerate me, and live in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me?”

§ 8 “Venerable sir,
I see five qualities in the Blessed One because of which his disciples honour, respect, revere, and venerate him, and live in dependence on him, honouring and respecting him.

What are the five?

(i) .First, venerable sir, the Blessed One eats little and commends eating little; this I see as the first quality of the Blessed One because of which his disciples honour, respect, revere, and venerate him, and live in dependence on him, honouring and respecting him. [6]

(ii) .Again, venerable sir, the Blessed One is content with any kind of robe and commends contentment with any kind of robe; this I see as the second quality of the Blessed One…

(iii) .Again, venerable sir, the Blessed One is content with any kind of almsfood and commends contentment with any kind of almsfood; this I see as the third quality of the Blessed One…

(iv) .Again, venerable sir, the Blessed One is content with any kind of resting place and commends contentment with any kind of resting place; this I see as the fourth quality of the Blessed One…

(v) .Again, venerable sir, the Blessed One is secluded and commends seclusion; this I see as the fifth quality of the Blessed One…

Venerable sir, these are the five qualities I see in the Blessed One because of which his disciples honour, respect, revere, and venerate him, and live in dependence on him, honouring and respecting him.”

§ 9. “Suppose, Udāyin, my disciples honoured, respected, revered, and venerated me, and lived in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me, with the thought:
The recluse Gotama eats little and commends eating little.’

Now there are disciples of mine who live on a cupful or half a cupful of food, a bilva fruit’s or half a bilva fruit’s quantity of food, [7] while I sometimes eat the full contents of my almsbowl or even more. So if my disciples honoured me…with the thought:
‘The recluse Gotama eats little and commends eating little,’
then those disciples of mine who live on a cupful of food…should not honour, respect, revere, and venerate me for this quality, nor should they live in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me.

. “Suppose, Udāyin, my disciples honoured, respected, revered, and venerated me, and lived in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me, with the thought:
The recluse Gotama is content with any kind of robe and commends contentment with any kind of robe.’

Now there are disciples of mine who are refuse-rag wearers, wearers of coarse robes; they collect rags from the charnel ground, rubbish heaps, or shops, make them into patched robes, and wear them.
But I sometimes wear robes given by householders, robes so fine that pumpkin hair is coarse in comparison.

So if my disciples honoured me…with the thought:
The recluse Gotama is content with any kind of robe and commends contentment with any kind of robe,’ then those disciples of mine who are refuse-rag wearers, wearers of coarse robes…should not honour, respect, revere, and venerate me for this quality, nor should they live in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me.

“Suppose, Udāyin, my disciples honoured, respected, revered, and venerated me, and lived in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me, with the thought:
The recluse Gotama is content with any kind of almsfood and commends contentment with any kind of almsfood.

Now there are disciples of mine who are almsfood eaters, who go on unbroken almsround from house to house, who delight in gathering their food; when they have entered among the houses they will not consent even when invited to sit down.

But I sometimes eat on invitation meals of choice rice [8] and many sauces and curries.

So if my disciples honoured me…with the thought: ‘The recluse Gotama is content with any kind of almsfood and commends contentment with any kind of almsfood,’
then those disciples of mine who are alms food eaters…should not honour, respect, revere, and venerate me for this quality, nor should they live in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me.

. “Suppose, Udāyin, my disciples honoured, respected, revered, and venerated me, and lived in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me, with the thought:
The recluse Gotama is content with any kind of resting place and commends contentment with any kind of resting place.’

Now there are disciples of mine who are tree-root dwellers and open-air dwellers, who do not use a roof for eight months [of the year], while I sometimes live in gabled mansions plastered within and without, protected against the wind, secured by door bolts, with shuttered windows. So if my disciples honoured me…with the thought:
The recluse Gotama is content with any kind of resting place and commends contentment with any kind of resting place,
then those disciples of mine who are tree-root dwellers and open-air dwellers…should not honour, respect, revere, and venerate me for this quality, nor should they live in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me.

“Suppose, Udāyin, my disciples honoured, respected, revered, and venerated me, and lived in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me, with the thought:
The recluse Gotama is secluded and commends seclusion.’

Now there are disciples of mine who are forest dwellers, dwellers in remote resting places, who live withdrawn in remote jungle-thicket resting places and return to the midst of the Sangha once each half-month for the recitation of the Pātimokkha.

But I sometimes live surrounded by bhikkhus and bhikkhunīs, by men and women lay followers, by kings and kings’ ministers, by other sectarians and their disciples. So if my disciples honoured me…with the thought:
The recluse Gotama is secluded and commends seclusion,’ [9]
then those disciples of mine who are forest dwellers…should not honour, respect, revere, and venerate me for this quality, nor should they live in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me.

Thus, Udāyin, it is not because of these five qualities that my disciples honour, respect, revere, and venerate me, and live in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me.

§ 10. “However, Udāyin, there are five other qualities because of which my disciples honour, respect, revere, and venerate me, and live in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me.

What are the five?

§ 11. “Here, Udāyin, my disciples esteem me for the higher virtue thus:
‘The recluse Gotama is virtuous, he possesses the supreme aggregate of virtue.’

This is the first quality because of which my disciples honour, respect, revere, and venerate me, and live in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me.

§ 12. “Again, Udāyin, my disciples esteem me for my excellent knowledge and vision thus:
‘When the recluse Gotama says “I know,” he truly knows;
when he says “I see,” he truly sees.

The recluse Gotama teaches the Dhamma through direct knowledge, not without direct knowledge; he teaches the Dhamma with a sound basis, not without a sound basis; he teaches the Dhamma in a convincing manner, not in an unconvincing manner.’

This is the second quality because of which [10] my disciples honour me…

§ 13. “Again, Udāyin, my disciples esteem me for the higher wisdom thus:
‘The recluse Gotama is wise; he possesses the supreme aggregate of wisdom. It is impossible that he should not foresee the implications of an assertion761 or that he should not be able to confute with reasons the current doctrines of others.’

What do you think, Udāyin?
Would my disciples, knowing and seeing thus, break in and interrupt me?”
—“No, venerable sir.”—“I do not expect instruction
from my disciples; invariably, it is my disciples who expect instruction from me.
This is the third quality because of which my disciples honour me…

§ 13. “Again, Udāyin, my disciples esteem me for the higher wisdom thus:
‘The recluse Gotama is wise; he possesses the supreme aggregate of wisdom. It is impossible that he should not foresee the implications of an assertion761 or that he should not be able to confute with reasons the current doctrines of others.’

What do you think, Udāyin?
Would my disciples, knowing and seeing thus, break in and interrupt me?”—
“No, venerable sir.”—
“I do not expect instruction from my disciples; invariably, it is my disciples who expect instruction from me.

This is the third quality because of which my disciples honour me…

[761:- Anāgataṁ vādapathaṁ. Ñm had translated: “a future logical consequence of an assertion.” The meaning seems to be that the Buddha understands all the unexpressed implications of his own doctrine as well as of his opponents’ doctrines.]

§ 14 “Again, Udāyin, when my disciples have met with suffering and become victims of suffering, prey to suffering, they come to me and ask me about the noble truth of suffering. Being asked, I explain to them the noble truth of suffering, and I satisfy their minds with my explanation.

They ask me about the noble truth of the origin of suffering…
about the noble truth of the cessation of suffering…
about the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering.

Being asked, I explain to them the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering, and I satisfy their minds with my explanation. This is the fourth quality [11] because of which my disciples honour me…

1. The Four Foundations of Mindfulness

§ 15 “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to develop the four foundations of mindfulness. 762

[762:- Explained in full in MN 10. The first seven groups of “wholesome states” (§§15–21) constitute the thirty-seven aids to enlightenment (bodhipakkhiyā dhammā).]

  • Here a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body as a body, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, having put away covetousness and grief for the world.
  • He abides contemplating feelings as feelings…
  • He abides contemplating mind as mind…
  • He abides contemplating mind-objects as mindobjects, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, having put away covetousness and grief for the world. And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.763

[763:- Abhiññāvosānapāramippatta. MA explains as the attainment of arahantship.
This may be the only sense that the word pāramı̄ bears in the four Nikāyas. In the later Theravāda literature, beginning perhaps with such works as the Buddhavaṁsa, this word comes to signify the perfect virtues that a bodhisatta must fulfil over many lives in order to attain Buddhahood. In that context it corresponds to the pāramitā of the Mahāyāna literature, though the numerical lists of virtues overlap only in part.]

2. The Four Right Kinds of Striving

§ 16 “Again, Udāyin,
I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to develop the four right kinds of striving.

  • Here a bhikkhu awakens zeal for the non-arising of unarisen evil unwholesome states, and he makes effort, arouses energy, exerts his mind, and strives.
  • He awakens zeal for the abandoning of arisen evil unwholesome states…
  • He awakens zeal for the arising of unarisen wholesome states…
  • He awakens zeal for the continuance, non-disappearance, strengthening, increase, and fulfilment by development of arisen wholesome states, and he makes effort, arouses energy, exerts his mind, and strives.

And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

3. The Four Bases for Spiritual Power

§ 17. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to develop the four bases for spiritual power.

  • Here a bhikkhu develops the basis for spiritual power consisting in concentration due to zeal and determined striving.
  • He develops the basis for spiritual power consisting in concentration due to energy and determined striving.
  • He develops the basis for spiritual power consisting in concentration due to [purity of] mind and determined striving.
  • He develops the basis for spiritual power consisting in concentration due to investigation and determined striving.

And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

4. The Five Faculties

§ 18 “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to develop the five spiritual faculties.

  • Here a bhikkhu develops the faculty of faith, which leads to peace, leads to enlightenment. He develops the faculty of energy
  • a bhikkhu develops the faculty of mindfulness
  • a bhikkhu develops the faculty of stillness.
  • a bhikkhu develops the faculty of wisdom, which leads to peace, leads to enlightenment.

And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

5. The Five Powers

§ 19. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to develop the five powers.

  • Here a bhikkhu develops the power of faith, which leads to peace, leads to enlightenment.
  • He develops the power of energy…
  • …..the power of mindfulness
  • ….…the power of concentration
  • ……the power of wisdom, which leads to peace, leads to enlightenment.

And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

6. The Seven Enlightenment Factors

§ 20. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to develop the seven enlightenment factors.

  • Here a bhikkhu develops the mindfulness enlightenment factor, which is supported by seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, and results in relinquishment.
  • He develops the investigation-of-states enlightenment factor…
  • the energy enlightenment factor…
  • the rapture enlightenment factor…
  • the tranquility enlightenment factor…
  • the stillness enlightenment factor…
  • the equanimity enlightenment factor, which is supported by seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, and results in relinquishment.

And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

7. The Noble Eightfold Path

§21. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to develop the Noble Eightfold Path.

Here a bhikkhu develops right view,
right intention,
right speech,
right action,
right livelihood,
right effort,
right mindfulness, and
right concentration.

And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

8. The Eight Liberations

§ 22 “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to develop the eight liberations.764

[764:- MA explains liberation (vimokkha) here as meaning the mind’s full (but temporary) release from the opposing states and its full (but temporary) release by delighting in the object. The first liberation is the attainment of the four jhānas using a kasi˚a (see §24 and n.768) derived from a coloured object in one’s own body; the second is the attainment of the jhānas using a kasi˚a derived from an external object; the third can be understood as the attainment of the jhānas through either a very pure and beautiful coloured kasi˚a or the four brahmavihāras . The remaining liberations are the immaterial attainments and the attainment of cessation.]

  • Possessed of material form, one sees forms: this is the first liberation.
  • Not perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally: this is the second liberation.
  • One is resolved only upon the beautiful: this is the third liberation. [13]
  • With the complete surmounting of perceptions of form, with the disappearance of perceptions of sensory impact, with non-attention to perceptions of diversity, aware that ‘space is infinite,’ one enters upon and abides in the base of infinite space: this is the fourth liberation.
  • By completely surmounting the base of infinite space, aware that ‘consciousness is infinite,’ one enters upon and abides in the base of infinite consciousness: this is the fifth liberation.
  • By completely surmounting the base of infinite consciousness, aware that ‘there is nothing,’ one enters upon and abides in the base of nothingness: this is the sixth liberation.
  • By completely surmounting the base of nothingness, one enters upon and abides in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception: this is the seventh liberation.
  • By completely surmounting the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, one enters upon and abides in the cessation of perception and feeling: this is the eighth liberation.

And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

9. The Eight Bases for Transcendence

§ 23. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to develop the eight bases for transcendence.765

[765:- MA explains that these are called bases of transcendence (abhibhāyatana) because they transcend (abhibhavati, overcome) the opposing states and the objects, the former through the application of the appropriate antidote, the latter
through the arising of knowledge]

  • Perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally, limited, fair and ugly; by transcending them, one perceives thus: ‘I know, I see.’ This is the first base for transcendence .766

[766:- MA: The meditator does the preliminary work on an internal form—
e.g., the blue of the eyes for a blue-kasina, the skin for a yellow kasina, the blood for a red-kasina, the teeth for a white-kasina—but the sign of stillness (nimitta) arises externally.

The “transcending” of the forms is the attainment of absorption together with the arising of the sign. The perception “I know, I see” is the advertence (ābhoga) that occurs after he emerges from the attainment, not within the attainment. The second base of transcendence differs from the first only by the extension of the sign from limited to unlimited dimensions.]

  • Perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally, immeasurable, fair and ugly; by transcending them, one perceives thus: ‘I know, I see.’ This is the second base for transcendence.
  • Not perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally, limited, fair and ugly; by transcending them, one perceives thus: ‘I know, I see.’ This is the third base for transcendence .767

[767:- MA: The third and fourth bases involve preliminary work done on an external form and the arising of the sign externally. The fifth through eighth bases differ from the third and fourth in the superior purity and luminosity of their colours.]

  • Not perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally, immeasurable, fair and ugly; by transcending them, one perceives thus: ‘I know, I see.’ This is the fourth base for transcendence.
  • Not perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally, blue, of blue colour, blue in appearance, with blue luminosity. Just like a flax flower, which is blue, of blue colour, blue in appearance, with blue luminosity, or just like Benares cloth smoothened on both sides, which is blue, of blue colour, blue in appearance, with blue luminosity; so too, not perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally…with blue luminosity; by transcending them, one perceives thus: ‘I know, I see.’ This is the fifth [14] base for transcendence.
  • Not perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally, yellow, of yellow colour, yellow in appearance, with yellow luminosity. Just like a kaṇṇikāra flower, which is yellow, of yellow colour, yellow in appearance, with yellow luminosity, or just like Benares cloth smoothened on both sides, which is yellow, of yellow colour, yellow in appearance, with yellow luminosity; so too, not perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally…with yellow luminosity; by transcending them, one perceives thus: ‘I know, I see.’ This is the sixth base for transcendence.
  • Not perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally, red, of red colour, red in appearance, with red luminosity. Just like a hibiscus flower, which is red, of red colour, red in appearance, with red luminosity, or just like Benares cloth smoothened on both sides, which is red, of red colour, red in appearance, with red luminosity; so too, not perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally…with red luminosity; by transcending them, one perceives thus: ‘I know, I see.’ This is the seventh base for transcendence.
  • Not perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally, white, of white colour, white in appearance, with white luminosity. Just like the morning star, which is white, of white colour, white in appearance, with white luminosity, or just like Benares cloth smoothened on both sides, which is white, of white colour, white in appearance, with white luminosity; so too, not perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally…with white luminosity; by transcending them, one perceives thus: ‘I know, I see.’ This is the eighth base for transcendence.

And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

10. The Ten Kasiṇas

§ 24. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to develop the ten kasiṇa bases.768 One contemplates the earthkasiṇa above, below, and across, undivided and immeasurable.

[768:- The kasiṇa is a meditation object derived from a physical device that provides a support for acquiring the inwardly visualised sign. Thus, for example, a disk made of clay can be used as the preliminary object for practising the earth-kasina, a bowl of water for practising the water kasina. The kasinas are explained in detail in Vsm IV and V. There, however, the space-kasina is restricted to limited space, and the consciousness-kasina is replaced by the light kasina..]

Another contemplates the water-kasiṇa…
Another contemplates the fire-kasiṇa…
Another contemplates the air-kasiṇa…
Another contemplates the blue-kasiṇa…
Another contemplates the yellow-kasiṇa…
Another contemplates the red-kasiṇa…
Another contemplates the white-kasiṇa…
Another contemplates the space-kasiṇa…
Another contemplates the consciousness-kasiṇa [15] above, below, and across, undivided and immeasurable. And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the perfection and consummation of direct knowledge.

11. The Four Jhānas

§ 25. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to develop the four jhānas.

Here, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion.

He makes the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion.769

[769:- The similes for the jhānas also appear in MN 39, as do the similes for the last three types of knowledge at §§34–36].

Just as a skilled bath man or a bath man’s apprentice heaps bath powder in a metal basin and, sprinkling it gradually with water, kneads it till the moisture wets his ball of bath powder, soaks it and pervades it inside and out, yet the ball itself does not ooze; so too, a bhikkhu makes the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion.

§ 26. “Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second jhāna, which has self-confidence and singleness of mind without applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of concentration. He makes the rapture and pleasure born of concentration drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the rapture and pleasure born of concentration.

Just as though there were a lake whose waters welled up from below and it had no inflow from east, west, north, or south [16] and would not be replenished from time to time by showers of rain, then the cool fount of water welling up in the lake would make the cool water drench, steep, fill, and pervade the lake, so that there would be no part of the whole lake unpervaded by cool water; so too, a bhikkhu makes the rapture and pleasure born of concentration drench, steep, fill,
and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the rapture and pleasure born of concentration.

§ 27. “Again, with the fading away as well of rapture, a bhikkhu abides in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling pleasure with the body, he enters upon and abides in the third jhāna, on account of which noble ones announce:

‘He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.’ He makes the pleasure divested of rapture drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the pleasure divested of rapture.

Just as in a pond of blue or red or white lotuses, some lotuses that are born and grow in the water thrive immersed in the water without rising out of it, and cool water drenches, steeps, fills, and pervades them to their tips and their roots, so that there is no part of all those lotuses unpervaded by cool water; so too, a bhikkhu makes the pleasure divested of rapture drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the pleasure divested of rapture.

§ 28. “Again, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jhāna, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. He sits pervading this body with a pure bright mind, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the pure bright mind.

Just as though a man were sitting covered from the head down with a white cloth, so that there would be no part of his whole body not covered by the white cloth; so too, a bhikkhu sits pervading this body with a pure bright mind, so that there is no part of his whole body [17] unpervaded by the pure bright mind. And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

12. Insight Knowledge

§ 29. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to understand thus :770
‘This body of mine, made of material form, consisting of the four great elements, procreated by a mother and father, and built up out of boiled rice and porridge, is subject to impermanence, to being worn and rubbed away, to dissolution and disintegration, and this consciousness of mine is supported by it and bound up with it.’

[770:- §§29–36 describe eight varieties of higher knowledge which, in the Sāmaññaphala Sutta, are designated superior fruits of recluseship.]

Suppose there were a beautiful beryl gem of purest water, eight-faceted, well cut, clear and limpid, possessed of all good qualities, and through it a blue, yellow, red, white, or brown thread would be strung.

Then a man with good sight, taking it in his hand, might review it thus:
‘This is a beautiful beryl gem of purest water, eight-faceted, well cut, clear and limpid, possessed of all good qualities, and through it is strung a blue, yellow, red, white, or brown thread.’

So too, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to understand thus:
This body of mine…is subject to impermanence, to being worn and rubbed away, to dissolution and disintegration, and this consciousness of mine is supported by it and bound up with it.

And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

13. The Mind-Made Body

§ 30. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to create from this body another body having form, mind-made, with all its limbs, lacking no faculty.

Just as though a man were to pull out a reed from its sheath and think thus:
‘This is the sheath, this is the reed; the sheath is one, the reed is another; it is from the sheath that the reed has been pulled out’;

or just as though a man were to pull out a sword from its scabbard and think thus: ‘This is the sword, this is the scabbard; the sword is one, the scabbard another; it is from the scabbard that the sword has been pulled out’; [18]

or just as though a man were to pull a snake out of its slough and think thus: ‘This is the snake, this is the slough; the snake is one, the slough another; it is from the slough that the snake has been pulled out.’

So too, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to create from this body another body having form, mind-made, with all its limbs, lacking no faculty. And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

14. The Kinds of Supernormal Power

§ 31 . “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to wield the various kinds of supernormal power:

having been one, they become many; having been many, they become one; they appear and vanish; they go unhindered through walls, through enclosures, through mountains, as though through space; they dive in and out of the earth as though it were water; they walk on water without sinking as though it were earth; seated cross-legged, they travel in space like birds; with their hands they touch and stroke the moon and sun so powerful and mighty; they wield bodily mastery even as far as the Brahma-world. Just as a skilled potter or his apprentice might create and fashion out of well-prepared clay any shape of pot he wished; or just as a skilled ivory worker or his apprentice might create and fashion out of well-prepared ivory any ivory work of art he wished; or just as a skilled goldsmith or his apprentice might create and fashion out of well-prepared gold any gold work of art he wished; so too, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to wield the various kinds of supernormal power…[19]…they wield bodily mastery even as far as the Brahma-world. And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

15. The Divine Ear Element

§ 32. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way whereby with the divine ear element, which is purified and surpasses the human, they hear both kinds of sounds, the divine and the human, those that are far as well as near. Just as a vigorous trumpeter might make himself heard without difficulty in the four quarters; so too, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way whereby with the divine ear element…far as well as near. And thereby many disciples of mine
abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

16. Understanding the Minds of Others

§ 33. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to understand the minds of other beings, of other persons, having encompassed them with their own minds. They understand a mind affected by lust as affected by lust and a mind unaffected by lust as unaffected by lust; they understand a mind affected by hate as affected by hate and a mind unaffected by hate as unaffected by hate; they understand a mind affected by delusion as affected by delusion and a mind unaffected by delusion as unaffected by delusion; they understand a contracted mind as contracted and a distracted mind as distracted; they understand an exalted mind as exalted and an unexalted mind as unexalted; they understand a surpassed mind as surpassed and an unsurpassed mind as unsurpassed; they understand a concentrated mind as concentrated and an unconcentrated mind as unconcentrated; they understand a liberated mind as liberated and an unliberated mind as unliberated. Just as a man or a woman—young, youthful, and fond of ornaments—on viewing the image of his or her own face in a clean bright mirror or in a bowl of clear water, would know if there were a spot thus: ‘There is a spot,’ [20] or would know if there were no spot thus: ‘There is no spot’; so too, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to understand…an unliberated mind as unliberated. And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

17. The Recollection of Past Lives

§ 34 .“Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to recollect their manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two births, three births, four births, five births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty births, a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births, many aeons of world contraction, many aeons of world-expansion, many aeons of world-contraction and expansion: ‘There I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my lifeterm; and passing away from there, I reappeared elsewhere; and there too I was so named…and passing away from there, I reappeared here.’

Thus with their aspects and particulars they recollect their manifold past lives. Just as a man might go from his own village to another village and then back again to his own village. He might think: ‘I went from my own village to that village, and there I stood in such a way, sat in such a way, spoke in such a way, kept silent in such a way; and from that village I went to that other village and there [21] I stood in such a way…kept silent in such a way; and from that village I came back again to my own village.’ So too, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to recollect their manifold lives…Thus with their aspects and particulars they recollect their manifold past lives. And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

18. The Divine Eye

§ 35. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way whereby with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, they see beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate. They understand how beings pass on according to their actions thus:
‘These worthy beings who were ill conducted in body, speech, and mind, revilers of noble ones, wrong in their views, giving effect to wrong view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reappeared in a state of deprivation, in a bad destination, in perdition, even in hell; but these worthy beings who were well conducted in body, speech, and mind, not revilers of noble ones, right in their views, giving effect to right view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reappeared in a good destination, even in the heavenly world.’

Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, they see beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and they understand how beings pass on according to their actions. Just as though there were two houses with doors and a man with good sight standing there between them saw people entering the houses and coming out and passing to and fro.

So too, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way whereby with the divine eye…They understand how beings pass on according to their actions. And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge. [22]

19. The Destruction of the Taints

§ 36. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way whereby by realising for themselves with direct knowledge, they here and now enter upon and abide in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints. Just as if there were a lake in a mountain recess, clear, limpid, and undisturbed, so that a man with good sight standing on the bank could see shells, gravel, and pebbles, and also shoals of fish swimming about and resting. He might think: ‘There is this lake, clear, limpid, and undisturbed, and there are these shells, gravel, and pebbles, and also these shoals of fish swimming about and resting.’ So too, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way whereby by realising for themselves with direct knowledge, they here and now enter upon and abide in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints. And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

§ 37 “This, Udāyin, is the fifth quality because of which my disciples honour, respect, revere, and venerate me, and live in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me.

§ 38. “These, Udāyin, are the five qualities because of which my disciples honour, respect, revere, and venerate me, and live in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me.”

That is what the Blessed One said. The wanderer Udāyin was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

108 Gopaka Moggallāna Sutta

this Sutta is one of the suttasa added after the great passing away of the Thathagatha. The venerable Ānanda explains how the Sangha maintains its unity and internal discipline after the passing away of the Buddha. and explains the ten quality of a member of sangha who should be respected, venerated, honored.

Bhikku Bodhi’s Sutta Exposition

§ 1. THUS HAVE I HEARD.
On one occasion the venerable Ānanda was living at Rājagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary, not long after the Blessed One had attained to final Nibbāna.1031

[1031:- MA says that after the Buddha’s relics had been distributed, Ven. Ānanda had come to Rājagaha for the recitation of the Dhamma (at the first GreatCouncil).]

§ 2. Now on that occasion King Ajātasattu Vedehiputta of Magadha, being suspicious of King Pajjota, was having Rājagaha fortified.1032

[1032:- King Pajjota was a friend of King Bimbisāra of Magadha, who had been killed by his son Ajātasattu. According to MA, Ajātasattuthought King Pajjota might seek to avenge his friend’s murder.]

§ 3. Then, when it was morning, the venerable Ānanda dressed, and taking his bowl and outer robe, went into Rājagaha for alms. Then the venerable Ānanda thought: “It is still too early to wander for alms in Rājagaha. Suppose I went to the brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna at his workplace.”

§ 4. So the venerable Ānanda went to the brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna at his workplace. The brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna saw the venerable Ānanda coming in the distance and said to him: “Let Master Ānanda come! Welcome to Master Ānanda! It is long since Master Ānanda found an opportunity to come here. Let Master Ānanda be seated; this seat is ready.” The venerable Ānanda sat down on the seat made ready. [8] The brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna took a low seat, sat down at one side, and asked the venerable Ānanda:

§ 5. “Master Ānanda, is there any single bhikkhu who possesses in each and every way all those qualities that were possessed by Master Gotama, accomplished and fully enlightened?”

“There is no single bhikkhu, brahmin, who possesses in each and every way all those qualities that were possessed by the Blessed One, accomplished and fully enlightened. For the Blessed One was the arouser of the unarisen path, the producer of the unproduced path, the declarer of the undeclared path; he was the knower of the path, the finder of the path, the one skilled in the path. But his disciples now abide following that path and become possessed of it afterwards.”

§ 6. But this discussion between the venerable Ānanda and the brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna was interrupted; for then the brahmin Vassakāra, the chief minister of Magadha, 1033 while supervising the work at Rājagaha, went to the venerable Ānanda at the workplace of the brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna.

[1033:- See DN 16.1.2–5/iii.72–76.]

He exchanged greetings with the venerable Ānanda, and when this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and asked the venerable Ānanda: “For what discussion are you sitting together here now, Master Ānanda? And what was your discussion that was interrupted?”
“ Brahmin , the brahmin Gopaka Moggall̄na asked me: ‘Master Ānanda, is there any single bhikkhu who possesses in each and every way all those qualities that were possessed by Master Gotama, accomplished and fully enlightened?’ I replied to the brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna: ‘There is no single bhikkhu, brahmin, who possesses in each and every way all those qualities that were possessed by the Blessed One, accomplished and fully enlightened. For the Blessed One was the arouser of the unarisen path [9]…But his disciples now abide following that path and become possessed of it afterwards.’ This was our discussion that was interrupted when you arrived.”

§ 7. “Is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu who was appointed by Master Gotama thus: ‘He will be your refuge when I am gone,’ and whom you now have recourse to?”
“There is no single bhikkhu, brahmin, who was appointed by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened, thus: ‘He will be your refuge when I am gone,’ and whom we now have recourse to.”

§ 8. “But is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu who has been chosen by the Sangha and appointed by a number of elder bhikkhus thus: ‘He will be our refuge after the Blessed One has gone,’ and whom you now have recourse to?”

§ 9. “There is no single bhikkhu, brahmin, who has been chosen by the Sanghaand appointed by a number of elder bhikkhus thus: ‘He will be our refuge after the Blessed One has gone,’ and whom we now have recourse to.”

“But if you have no refuge, Master Ānanda, what is the cause for your concord?”
“We are not without a refuge, brahmin. We have a refuge; we have the Dhamma as our refuge.”

§ 10. “But when you were asked: ‘Is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu who was appointed by Master Gotama thus: “He will be your refuge when I am gone,” and whom you now have recourse to?’ you answered: ‘There is no such single bhikkhu… whom we now have recourse to.’

When you were asked: ‘Is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu who has been chosen by the Sangha and appointed by a number of elder bhikkhus thus: “He will be our refuge after the Blessed One has gone,” and whom you now have recourse to?’ you answered: ‘There is no such single bhikkhu…[10]…whom we now have recourse to.’

When you were asked: ‘But if you have no refuge, Master Ānanda, what is the cause for your concord?’ you answered: ‘We are not without a refuge, brahmin. We have a refuge; we have the Dhamma as our refuge.’ Now how should the meaning of these statements be regarded, Master Ānanda?”

“Brahmin, the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened, has prescribed the course of training for bhikkhus and he has laid down the P̄atimokkha.

Patimokka

On the Uposatha day as many of us as live in dependence upon a single village district meet together in unison, and when we meet we ask one who knows the Pātimokkha to recite it. If a bhikkhu remembers an offence or a transgression while the Pātimokkha is being recited, we make him act in accordance with the Dhamma, in accordance with the instructions. It is not the worthy ones that make us act; it is the Dhamma that makes us act.”1034

[1034:- The import of this statement is that the Sangha is not governed by the personal judgements of its members but by the Dhamma and disciplinary code laid down for it by the Buddha. In this the bhikkhus follow the Buddha’s final injunction: “What I have taught and explained to you as Dhamma and Discipline will, at my passing, be your teacher” (DN 16.6.1/ii.154).]

§ 11. “Is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu whom you now honour, respect, revere, and venerate, and on whom you live in dependence honouring and respecting him?”
“There is a single bhikkhu, brahmin, whom we now honour, respect, revere, and venerate, and on whom we live in dependence honouring and respecting him.”

§ 12. “But when you were asked: ‘Is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu who was appointed by Master Gotama…?’ you answered ‘There is no such single bhikkhu…’

When you were asked: ‘Is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu who has been chosen by the Sangha…?’ [11] you answered: ‘There is no such single bhikkhu…’

When you were asked: ‘Is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu whom you honour, respect, revere, and venerate, and on whom you live in dependence honouring and respecting him?’ you answered: ‘There is such a single bhikkhu whom we now honour…and on whom we live in dependence honouring and respecting him.’ Now how should the meaning of these statements be regarded, Master Ānanda?”

§ 13. “There are, brahmin, ten qualities inspiring confidence that have been declared by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened. When these qualities are found in anyone among us, we honour, respect, revere, and venerate him, and live in dependence on him honouring and respecting him.

§ 13. What are the ten?
(1) “Here, brahmin, a bhikkhu is virtuous, he dwells restrained with the restraint of the Pātimokkha, he is perfect in conduct and resort, and seeing fear in the slightest faults, he trains himself by undertaking the training precepts.

§ 15. (2) “He has learned much, remembers what he has learned, and consolidates what he has learned. Such teachings as are good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, and which affirm a holy life that is utterly perfect and pure—such teachings as these he has learned much of, remembered, mastered verbally, investigated with the mind, and penetrated well by view.

§ 16.(3) “He is content with his robes, almsfood, resting place, and medicinal requisites.

§ 17.(4) “He obtains at will, without trouble or difficulty, the four jhānas that constitute the higher mind and provide a pleasant abiding here and now.

§ 18.(5) “He wields the various kinds of supernormal power: having been one, he becomes many; having been many, he becomes one; he appears and vanishes; he goes unhindered through a wall, through an enclosure, through a mountain as though through space; he dives in and out of the earth as though it were water; he walks on water without sinking as though it were earth; [12] seated crosslegged, he travels in space like a bird; with his hand he touches and strokes the moon and sun so powerful and mighty; he wields bodily mastery even as far as the Brahma-world.

§ 19. (6) “With the divine ear element, which is purified and surpasses the human, he hears both kinds of sounds, the divine and the human, those that are far as well as near.

§ 20. (7)

  • “He understands the minds of other beings, of other persons, having encompassed them with his own mind.
  • He understands a mind affected by lust as affected by lust and a mind unaffected by lust as unaffected by lust;
  • he understands a mind affected by hate as affected by hate and a mind unaffected by hate as unaffected by hate;
  • he understands a mind affected by delusion as affected by delusion and a mind unaffected by delusion as unaffected by delusion;
  • he understands a contracted mind as contracted and a distracted mind as distracted; he understands an exalted mind as exalted and an unexalted mind as unexalted;
  • he understands a surpassed mind as surpassed and an unsurpassed mind as unsurpassed;
  • he understands a concentrated mind as concentrated and an unconcentrated mind as unconcentrated;
  • he understands a liberated mind as liberated and an unliberated mind as unliberated.

§ 21. (8) “He recollects his manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two births that is, one birth, two births, three births, four births, five births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty births, a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births, many aeons of world contraction, many aeons of world-expansion, many aeons of world-contraction and expansion: ‘There I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared elsewhere; and there too I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, [348] such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared here.’ Thus with their aspects and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives.

§ 22. (9) “With the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and he understands how beings pass on according to their actions.

§ 23.(10) “By realising for himself with direct knowledge, he here and now enters upon and abides in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints.

“These, brahmin, are the ten qualities inspiring confidence that have been declared by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened.

When these qualities are found in anyone among us, we honour, respect, revere, and venerate him, and live in dependence on him honouring and respecting him.” [13]

§ 24. When this was said, the brahmin Vassakāra, the minister of Magadha, said to General Upananda:
“What do you think, general? When these worthy ones honour one who should be honoured, respect one who should be respected, revere one who should be revered, and venerate one who should be venerated, surely they honour one who should be honoured…and venerate one who should be venerated.

For if these worthy ones did not honour, respect, revere, and venerate such a person, then whom could they honour, respect, revere, and venerate, and on whom could they live in dependence honouring and respecting?”

§ 25. Then the brahmin Vassakāra, the minister of Magadha, said to the venerable Ānanda:
“Where is Master Ānanda living now?”
“Now I am living in the Bamboo Grove, brahmin.”
“I hope, Master Ānanda, that the Bamboo Grove is pleasant, quiet and undisturbed by voices, with an atmosphere of seclusion, remote from people, favourable for retreat.”
“Indeed, brahmin, that the Bamboo Grove is pleasant… favourable for retreat is because of such guardian protectors as yourself.”


“Indeed, Master Ānanda, that the Bamboo Grove is pleasant…favourable for retreat is because of the worthy ones who are meditators and cultivate meditation. The worthy ones are meditators and cultivate meditation.

On one occasion, Master Ānanda, Master Gotama was living at Vesālī in the Hall with the Peaked Roof in the Great Wood. Then I went there and approached Master Gotama, and in many ways he gave a talk about meditation. Master Gotama was a meditator and cultivated meditation, and he praised every type of meditation.”

§ 26. “The Blessed One, brahmin, did not praise every type of meditation, nor did he condemn every type of meditation.

What kind [14] of meditation did the Blessed One not praise?

Here, brahmin, someone abides with his mind obsessed by sensual lust, a prey to sensual lust, and he does not understand as it actually is the escape from arisen sensual lust. While he harbours sensual lust within, he meditates, premeditates, out-meditates, and mismeditates.1035

[1035:- Jhāyanti pajjhāyanti nijjhāyanti apajjhāyanti. Though the verbs individually do not have an established pejorative sense, the string is obviously intended as a denigration. At MN 108.26 the four verbs are used to describe the meditation of one whose mind is obsessed by the five hindrances.]

He abides with his mind obsessed by ill will, a prey to ill will
…with his mind obsessed by sloth and torpor, a prey to sloth and torpor
…with his mind obsessed by restlessness and remorse, a prey to restlessness and remorse
…with his mind obsessed by doubt, a prey to doubt, and he does not understand as it actually is the escape from arisen doubt.
While he harbours doubt within, he meditates, premeditates, outmeditates, and mismeditates. The Blessed One did not praise that kind of meditation.

§ 27. “And what kind of meditation did the Blessed One praise?

Here, brahmin, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhāna…
With the stilling of applied and sustained thought, he enters upon and abides in the second jhāna…
With the fading away as well of rapture… he enters upon and abides in the third jh̄na…
With the abandoning of pleasure and pain… he enters upon and abides in the fourth jhāna…
The Blessed One praised that kind of meditation.”

§ 28. “It seems, Master Ānanda, that Master Gotama censured that kind of meditation that should be censured and praised that kind of meditation that should be praised. And now, Master Ānanda, we depart. We are busy and have much to do.”
“You may go, brahmin, at your own convenience.” [15]

Then the brahmin Vassakāra, the minister of Magadha, having delighted and rejoiced in the venerable Ānanda’s words, rose from his seat and departed.

§ 29. Then, soon after he had left, the brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna said to the venerable Ānanda: “Master Ānanda has not yet answered what we asked him.”

“Did we not tell you, brahmin: ‘There is no single bhikkhu, brahmin, who possesses in each and every way all those qualities that were possessed by the Blessed One, accomplished and fully enlightened.

For the Blessed One was the arouser of the unarisen path, the producer of the unproduced path, the declarer of the undeclared path; he was the knower of the path, the finder of the path, the one skilled in the path. But his disciples now abide following that path and become possessed of it afterwards’?”

124 Bakkula Sutta

Bhikku Bodhi’s Sutta xposition

§ 1. THUS HAVE I HEARD.
On one occasion the venerable Bakkula was living at Rājagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary.1167

[1167:- Note that the sutta do not indicate any reference to Buddha’s whereabouts as normally occurs in all suttas. As this monk lived 80 years as a monk means he outlived the Buddha and passed away long after the buddha. It is therefor a correct assumption to say this sutta was not included in the first council that took place almost soon after the great parinibbana., by the compilers of Suttas. Atuwa says that this sutta was recited at the second compilation of the Dhamma, held about a hundred years after the Buddha’s passing away.

According to MA, Ven. Bakkula became a monk in his eightieth year, which would make him 160 at the time this sutta takes place. He was declared by the Buddha to be the foremost disciple with respect to good health.]

§ 2. Then Acela Kassapa, a former companion of the venerable Bakkula in his lay life, [125] went to the venerable Bakkula and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and asked the venerable Bakkula:

§ 3 “Friend Bakkula, how long is it since you went forth?”
“It is eighty years since I went forth, friend.”
“Friend Bakkula, in these eighty years how many times have you engaged in sexual intercourse?”
“Friend Kassapa, you should not ask me such a question as that. You should ask me such a question as this: ‘Friend Bakkula, in these eighty years how many times have perceptions of sensual desire arisen in you?’”

“Friend Bakkula, in these eighty years how many times have perceptions of sensual desire arisen in you?”
“Friend Kassapa, in the eighty years since I went forth I do not recall any perception of sensual desire to have ever arisen in me.”

[That in the eighty years since he went forth the venerable Bakkula did not recall any perception of sensual desire to have ever arisen in him—this we remember as a wonderful and marvellous quality of the venerable Bakkula.]1168

[1168:- MA says that the passages here enclosed in brackets were added by the elders who compiled the Dhamma.]

§4 -5 . “Friend, in the eighty years since I went forth I do not recall any perception of ill will…any perception of cruelty to have ever arisen in me.”

[That in the eighty years since he went forth the venerable Bakkula did not recall any perception of ill will
… any perception of cruelty to have ever arisen in him—
this we remember as a wonderful and marvellous quality of the venerable Bakkula.]

§6. “Friend, in the eighty years since I went forth I do not recall any thought of sensual desire to have ever arisen in me.”
[…this too we remember as a wonderful and marvellous quality of the venerable Bakkula.]

§7-8 . “Friend, in the eighty years since I went forth I do not recall any thought of ill will…any thought of cruelty to have ever arisen in me.”


[…this too we remember as a wonderful and marvellous quality of the venerable Bakkula.] [126]

§9-15 . “Friend, in the eighty years since I went forth I do not recall ever having accepted a robe from a householder1169
…ever having worn a robe given by a householder
…ever having cut a robe with a cutter
…ever having sewn a robe with a needle
… ever having coloured a robe with dye
…ever having sewn a robe at the kaṭhina time
…ever having worked on making robes for my companions in the holy life.”
[…this too we remember as a wonderful and marvellous quality of the venerable Bakkula.]

[1169:- This passage and those to follow show Ven. Bakkula as an observer of the ascetic practices. The kaṭhina time is the period following the three-month rains residence when bhikkhus make new robes from the cloth they have received.]

§16-§19 . “Friend, in the eighty years since I went forth I do not recall ever having accepted an invitation to a meal
…ever having given rise to the thought:
‘Oh, may someone invite me to a meal!’
…ever having sat down inside a house
…ever having eaten inside a house.”

[…this too we remember as a wonderful and marvellous quality of the venerable Bakkula.]

§20-25 . “Friend, in the eighty years since I went forth I do not recall ever having grasped at the signs and features of a woman
…ever having taught the Dhamma to a woman, even as much as a four-line stanza
…ever having gone to the bhikkhunīs’ quarters
…ever having taught the Dhamma to a bhikkhunī
… ever having taught the Dhamma to a female probationer
…ever having taught the Dhamma to a female novice.”

[…this too we remember as a wonderful and marvellous quality of the venerable Bakkula.]

§ 26-§29 . “Friend, in the eighty years since I went forth I do not recall ever having given the going forth
…ever having given the full admission
…ever having given dependence
…ever having had a novice wait on me.”

[…this too we remember as a wonderful and marvellous quality of the venerable Bakkula.]

§30-37 . “Friend, in the eighty years since I went forth I do not recall ever having bathed in a bath house,
…ever having bathed with bath powder,
…ever having undertaking the work of massaging the limbs of my companions in the holy life [127]
…ever having had an affliction arise in me even for as long as it takes to milk a cow
…ever having carried medicine around, even as much as a piece of gallnut
…ever having used a bolster…ever having made up a bed
…ever having entered upon residence for the Rains in a resting place inside a village.”

[…this too we remember as a wonderful and marvellous quality of the venerable Bakkula.]

§ 38 . “Friend, for seven days after going forth I ate the country’s almsfood as a debtor; on the eighth day final knowledge arose.”1170

[1170:- MA says that after he went forth, he was an ordinary man for seven days, but on the eighth day he attained arahantship together with the analytical knowledges (paṭisambhidā).]

[That for seven days the venerable Bakkula ate the country’s almsfood as a debtor, and on the eighth day final knowledge arose—this too we remember as a wonderful and marvellous quality of the venerable Bakkula.]

§ 39 .[Then Acela Kassapa said:]
“I would receive the going forth in this Dhamma and Discipline, I would receive the full admission.”

And Acela Kassapa received the going forth in this Dhamma and Discipline, he received the full admission.1171

[1171:- MA: Ven. Bakkula himself did not give the ordination (which would have been a violation of his mode of practice) but arranged for other bhikkhus to give it.]

And soon, not long after his full admission, dwelling alone, withdrawn, diligent, ardent, and resolute, the venerable Kassapa, by realising for himself with direct knowledge, here and now entered upon and abided in that supreme goal of the holy life for the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth from the home life into homelessness.

He knew directly:
Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.”
And the venerable Kassapa became one of the arahants.

§ 40 . Then, on a later occasion, the venerable Bakkula took a key and went from dwelling to dwelling, saying: “Come forth, venerable sirs; come forth, venerable sirs. Today I shall attain final Nibbāna.”
[That the venerable Bakkula took a key and went from dwelling to dwelling saying: “Come forth, venerable sirs; come forth, venerable sirs. Today I shall attain final Nibbāna”—this too we remember as a wonderful and marvellous quality of the venerable Bakkula.] [128]

§ 41 .Then, seated in the midst of the Sangha of bhikkhus, the venerable Bakkula attained final Nibb̄na.1172

[1172:- MA: Ven. Bakkula had considered that all his life he had never made himself a burden to the other bhikkhus, and he did not want his body to be a burden after his death. Thus he entered into meditation on the heat element and attained final Nibbāna by causing his entire body to be consumed by the blaze.
Only the relics remained

[That seated in the midst of the Sangha of bhikkhus, the venerable Bakkula attained final Nibbāna—this too we remember as a wonderful and marvellous quality of the venerable Bakkula.] 1173

[1173:- MA says that this sutta was recited at the second compilation of the Dhamma, held about a hundred years after the Buddha’s passing away.]

111 One by One As They Occurred

Sariputta -Oriental Museum Durham University

§ 1. THUS HAVE I HEARD.
On one occasion the Blessed One was living at
Sāvatthī in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.”—“Venerable, sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:

§ 2. “Bhikkhus, Sāriputta is wise; Sāriputta has great wisdom; Sāriputta has wide wisdom; Sāriputta has joyous wisdom; Sāriputta has quick wisdom; S̄riputta has keen wisdom; Sāriputta has penetrative wisdom. During half a month, bhikkhus, Sāriputta gained insight into states one by one as they occurred.1046 Now Sāriputta’s insight into states one by one as they occurred was this:

[1046:- Anupadadhamma-vipassanā. MA explains that he developed insight into states in successive order by way of the meditative attainments and the jhāna factors, as will be described. The two-week period referred to fell from the time of Ven. Sāriputta’s ordination under the Buddha to his attainment of arahantship while listening to the Buddha explain the comprehension of feeling to Dı̄ghanakha (see MN 74.14).]

§ 3. “Here, bhikkhus, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, Sāriputta entered upon and abided in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion.

§ 4 “And the states in the first jhāna—the applied thought, the sustained thought, the rapture, the pleasure, and the unification of mind; the contact, feeling, perception, volition, and mind; the zeal, decision, energy, mindfulness, equanimity, and attention—these states were defined by him one by one as they occurred;1047 known to him those states arose, known they were present, known they disappeared. He understood thus: ‘So indeed, these states, not having been, come into being; having been, they vanish.’ Regarding those states, he abided unattracted, unrepelled, independent, detached, free, dissociated, with a mind rid of barriers.1048 He understood: ‘There is an escape beyond,’ and with the cultivation of that [attainment], he confirmed that there is.1049

[1047:- The first five states in the list are the jhāna factors proper of the first jhāna; the following states are additional components each performing their individual functions within the jhāna. This minute analysis of mental states into their
components anticipates the methodology of the Abhidhamma, and it is thus no coincidence that the name of Sāriputta is so closely linked with the emergence of the Abhidhamma literature.]

[1048:- All these terms signify the temporary suppression of the defilements by the power of the jhāna, not the full liberation from defilements through their eradication by the highest path, which Ven. Sāriputta had yet to attain.]

[1049:- 1049 The “escape beyond” (uttari̇ nissaraṇaṁ) here is the next higher attainment, the second jhāna.]

§ 5. “Again, bhikkhus, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, Sāriputta entered and abided in [26] the second jhāna, which has self-confidence and singleness of mind without applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of concentration.

§ 6. “And the states in the second jhāna—the self-confidence, the rapture, the pleasure, and the unification of mind; the contact, feeling, perception, volition, and mind; the zeal, decision, energy, mindfulness, equanimity, and attention—
these states were defined by him one by one as they occurred; known to him those states arose, known they were present, known they disappeared. He understood thus:…and with the cultivation of that [attainment], he confirmed that there is.

§ 7. “Again, bhikkhus, with the fading away as well of rapture, Sāriputta abided in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling pleasure with the body, he entered upon and abided in the third jhāna, on account of which noble ones announce: ‘He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.’

§ 8. “And the states in the third jhāna—the equanimity, the pleasure, the mindfulness, the full awareness, and the unification of mind; the contact, feeling, perception, volition, and mind; the zeal, decision, energy, mindfulness, equanimity, and attention—these states were defined by him one by one as they occurred; known to him those states arose, known they were present, known they disappeared. He understood thus:…and with the cultivation of that [attainment], he confirmed that there is.

§ 9 “Again, bhikkhus, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, Sāriputta entered upon and abided in the fourth jhāna, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity.

§ 10 “And the states in the fourth jhāna—the equanimity, the neither-painful nor-pleasant feeling, the mental unconcern due to tranquillity,1050 the purity of mindfulness, and the unification of mind; the contact, feeling, perception, volition, and mind; the zeal, decision, energy, mindfulness, equanimity, and attention—these states were defined by him one by one as they occurred; known to him those states arose, known they were present, [27] known they disappeared. He understood thus:…and with the cultivation of that [attainment], he confirmed that there is.

[1050:- Reading with the BBS ed. passaddhattā cetaso anābhogo. MA explains that the mental concern with pleasure, which persists in the third jhāna, is now considered to be gross, and when it subsides there is “mental unconcern due to tranquillity.” The PTS ed. reading, passi vedanā, is unintelligible and clearly an error.]

§ 11. “Again, bhikkhus, with the complete surmounting of perceptions of form, with the disappearance of perceptions of sensory impact, with non-attention to perceptions of diversity, aware that ‘space is infinite,’ Sāriputta entered upon and abided in the base of infinite space.

§ 12. “And the states in the base of infinite space—the perception of the base of infinite space and the unification of mind; the contact, feeling, perception, volition, and mind; the zeal, decision, energy, mindfulness, equanimity, and attention—these states were defined by him one by one as they occurred; known to him those states arose, known they were present, known they disappeared. He understood thus:…and with the cultivation of that [attainment], he confirmed that there is.

§ 13 “Again, bhikkhus, by completely surmounting the base of infinite space, aware that ‘consciousness is infinite,’ Sāriputta entered upon and abided in the base of infinite consciousness.

§ 14. “And the states in the base of infinite consciousness—the perception of the base of infinite consciousness and the unification of mind; the contact, feeling, perception, volition, and mind; the zeal, decision, energy, mindfulness, equanimity, and attention—these states were defined by him one by one as they occurred; known to him those states arose, known they were present, known they disappeared. He understood thus:…and with the cultivation of that [attainment], he confirmed that there is. [28]

§ 15. “Again, bhikkhus, by completely surmounting the base of infinite consciousness, aware that ‘there is nothing,’ Sāriputta entered upon and abided in the base of nothingness.

§ 16. “And the states in the base of nothingness—the perception of the base of nothingness and the unification of mind; the contact, feeling, perception, volition, and mind; the zeal, decision, energy, mindfulness, equanimity, and attention—these states were defined by him one by one as they occurred; known to him those states arose, known they were present, known they disappeared. He understood thus:…and with the cultivation of that [attainment], he confirmed that there is.

§ 18. “Again, bhikkhus, by completely surmounting the base of nothingness, Sāriputta entered upon and abided in the base of neither-perception-nor-nonperception.

§ 19. “He emerged mindful from that attainment. Having done so, he contemplated the states that had passed, ceased, and changed, thus: ‘So indeed, these states, not having been, come into being; having been, they vanish.’1051 Regarding those states, he abided unattracted, unrepelled, independent, detached, free, dissociated, with a mind rid of barriers. He understood: ‘There is an escape beyond,’ and with the cultivation of that [attainment], he confirmed that there is.

[1051:- This indirect introspective method must be used to contemplate the fourth immaterial attainment because this attainment, being extremely subtle, does not enter into the direct range of investigation for disciples. Only fully enlightened Buddhas are able to contemplate it directly.]

§ 20. “Again, bhikkhus, by completely surmounting the base of neitherperception- nor-non-perception, Sāriputta entered upon and abided in the cessation of perception and feeling. And his taints were destroyed by his seeing with wisdom.1052

[1052:- MA offers this explanation of the passage, transmitted by “the elders of India”: “The Elder Sāriputta cultivated serenity and insight in paired conjunction and realised the fruit of non-returning. Then he entered the attainment of cessation, and after emerging from it he attained arahantship.”]

§ 21. “He emerged mindful from that attainment. Having done so, he recalled the states that had passed, ceased, and changed, thus: ‘So indeed, these states, not having been, come into being; having been, they vanish.’1053 Regarding those states, he abided unattracted, unrepelled, independent, detached, free, dissociated, with a mind rid of barriers. He understood: ‘There is no escape beyond,’ and with the cultivation of that [attainment], he confirmed that there is not.1054

[1053:- Since there are no mental factors in the attainment of cessation, MA says that “these states” here must refer either to the states of material form that were occurring while he attained cessation, or to the mental factors of the preceding fourth immaterial attainment]

[1054 Note the realisation that there is “no escape beyond” the attainment of arahantship.]

§ 22. “Bhikkhus, rightly speaking, were it to be said of anyone: ‘He has attained mastery and perfection1055 in noble virtue, [29] attained mastery and perfection in noble concentration, attained mastery and perfection in noble wisdom, attained mastery and perfection in noble deliverance,’ it is of Sāriputta indeed that rightly speaking this should be said.

[1055:- Vasippatto pāramipatto. See n.763.Abhiññāvosānapāramippatta. MA explains as the attainment of arahantship. This may be the only sense that the word pāramı̄ bears in the four Nikāyas. In the later Theravāda literature, beginning perhaps with such works as the Buddhavaṁsa, this word comes to signify the perfect virtues that a bodhisatta must fulfil over many lives in order to attain Buddhahood. In that context it corresponds to the pāramitā of the Mahāyāna literature, though the numerical lists of virtues overlap only in part.]

§ 23. “Bhikkhus, rightly speaking, were it to be said of anyone: ‘He is the son of the Blessed One, born of his breast, born of his mouth, born of the Dhamma, created by the Dhamma, an heir in the Dhamma, not an heir in material things,’ it is of Sāriputta indeed that rightly speaking this should be said.

§ 24 . “Bhikkhus, the matchless Wheel of the Dhamma set rolling by the Tathāgata is kept rolling rightly by Sāriputta.”
That is what the Blessed One said.
The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words

093 Assalāyana Sutta

READ AN ARGUMENT TO SUPPORT THE CASTE SYSTEM TEACHING

§ 1. THUS HAVE I HEARD.
On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Sāvatthī in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

§ 2. Now at that time five hundred brahmins from diverse provinces were staying at Sāvatthī for some business or other. Then those brahmins thought:
“This recluse Gotama describes purification for all the four castes.869 Who is there able to dispute with him about this assertion?”

[869 The argument in favour of this thesis is set forth at MN 90.10–12.i.e:-
……………Venerable sir, I was not asking about this present life; I was asking about the life to come.
There are these four castes, venerable sir: the nobles, the brahmins, the merchants, and the workers. Is there any distinction or difference among them?”

“Great king, there are these five factors of striving.
What five?
Here a bhikkhu has faith, he places his faith in the Tathāgata’s enlightenment thus: ‘The Blessed One is accomplished, fully enlightened, perfect in true knowledge and conduct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, enlightened, blessed.’ Then he is free from illness and affliction, possessing a good digestion that is neither too cool nor too warm but medium and able to bear the strain of striving. Then he is honest and sincere, and shows himself as he actually is to his teacher and his companions in the holy life. Then he is energetic in abandoning unwholesome states and in undertaking wholesome states, steadfast, launching his effort with firmness and persevering in cultivating wholesome states. Then he is wise; he possesses wisdom regarding rise and disappearance that is noble and penetrative and leads to the complete destruction of suffering. These are the five factors of striving.
“There are these four castes, great king: the nobles, the brahmins, the merchants, and the workers. Now if they possessed these five factors of striving, it would lead to their welfare and happiness for a long time.”

11.“Venerable sir, there are these four castes: the nobles, the brahmins, the merchants, [129] and the workers. Now if they possessed these five factors of striving, would there be any difference among them here in that respect?”
“Here, great king, I say that the difference among them would lie in the diversity of their striving. Suppose there were two tamable elephants or tamable horses or tamable oxen that were well tamed and well disciplined, and two tamable elephants or tamable horses or tamable oxen that were untamed and undisciplined. What do you think, great king? Would the two tamable elephants or tamable horses or tamable oxen that were well tamed and well disciplined, being tamed, acquire the behaviour of the tamed, would they arrive at the grade of the tamed?”
“Yes, venerable sir.”
“And would the two tamable elephants or tamable horses or tamable oxen that were untamed and undisciplined, being untamed, acquire the behaviour of the tamed, would they arrive at the grade of the tamed, like the two elephants or horses or oxen that were well tamed and well disciplined?”
“No, venerable sir.”
“So too, great king, it is not possible that what can be achieved by one who has faith, who is free from illness, who is honest and sincere, who is energetic, and who is wise, can be achieved by one who has no faith, who has much illness, who is fraudulent and deceitful, who is lazy, and who is not wise.”…..]

§ 3. Now on that occasion a brahmin student named Assalāyana was staying at Sāvatthī. Young, shaven-headed, sixteen years old, he was a master of the Three Vedas with their vocabularies, liturgy, phonology, and etymology, and the histories as a fifth; skilled in philology and grammar, he was fully versed in natural philosophy and in the marks of a Great Man. Then the brahmins thought:
“There is this young brahmin student named Assalāyana staying at Sāvatthī.
Young…fully versed in natural philosophy and in the marks of a Great Man. He will be able to dispute with the recluse Gotama about this assertion.”

§4. So the brahmins went to the brahmin student Assalāyana and said to him:
“Master Assalāyana, this recluse Gotama describes purification for all the four castes. Let Master Assalāyana come and dispute with the recluse Gotama about this assertion.”

When this was said, the brahmin student Assalāyana replied:
“Sirs, the recluse Gotama is one who speaks the Dhamma. Now those who speak the Dhamma are difficult to dispute with. I am not able to dispute with the recluse Gotama about this assertion.”

A second time the brahmins said to him:
“Master Assalāyana, this recluse Gotama describes purification for all the four castes. Let Master Assalāyana come [148] and dispute with the recluse Gotama about this assertion. For the training of a wanderer has been completed by Master Assalāyana.”870

[870:- MA: They speak thus intending to say: “Having studied the Three Vedas, you have trained in the mantras by which those who go forth undertake their going forth and the mantras they maintain after they have gone forth. You have practised their mode of conduct. Therefore, you will not be defeated. Victory will be yours.”]

For the second time the brahmin student Assalāyana replied:
“Sirs, the recluse Gotama is one who speaks the Dhamma. Now those who speak the Dhamma are difficult to dispute with. I am not able to dispute with the recluse Gotama about this assertion.”

A third time the brahmins said to him: “Master Assalāyana, this recluse Gotama describes purification for all the four castes. Let Master Assalāyana come and dispute with the recluse Gotama about this assertion. For the training of a wanderer has been completed by Master Assalāyana. Let not the Master Assalāyana be defeated without having even fought the battle.”

When this was said, the brahmin student Assalāyana replied:
“Surely, Sirs, I am not getting through to you when I say: ’The recluse Gotama is one who speaks the Dhamma.’ Now those who speak the Dhamma are difficult to dispute with. I am not able to dispute with the recluse Gotama about this assertion. Still, sirs, at your bidding I will go.”

§ 5. Then the brahmin student Assalāyana went with a large number of brahmins to the Blessed One and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and said to the Blessed One:
Master Gotama, the brahmins say thus: ‘Brahmins are the highest caste, those of any other caste are inferior; brahmins are the fairest caste, those of any other caste are dark; only brahmins are purified, not non-brahmins; brahmins alone are the sons of Brahmā, the offspring of Brahmā, born of his mouth, born of Brahm̄, created by Brahm̄, heirs of Brahm̄.’ What does Master Gotama say about that?
“Now, Assalāyana, the brahmin women are seen having their periods, becoming pregnant, giving birth, and giving suck.871

[871:- This statement is intended to show that brahmins are born of women, just like other human beings, and there is thus no substance to their claim that they are born of Brahmā’s mouth.]

And yet those brahmins, though born from the womb, say thus: ‘Brahmins are the highest caste…
brahmins alone are the sons of Brahmā, the offspring of Brahmā, born of his mouth, born of Brahmā, created by Brahmā, heirs of Brahmā.’” [149]

§ 6. “Although Master Gotama says this, still the brahmins think thus:
‘Brahmins are the highest caste…heirs of Brahmā.’”
“What do you think, Assalāyana? Have you heard that in Yona and Kamboja872 and in other outland countries there are only two castes, masters and slaves, and that masters become slaves and slaves masters?”
“So I have heard, sir.”
“Then on the strength of what [argument] or with the support of what [authority] do the brahmins in this case say thus: ‘Brahmins are the highest caste…heirs of Brahmā’?”

[872:- Yona is the Pali transliteration of Ionia. Kamboja is a region to the northwest of the Indian “Middle Country.”]

§ 7. “Although Master Gotama says this, still the brahmins think thus:
‘Brahmins are the highest caste…heirs of Brahmā.’”
“What do you think, Assalāyana?873

[873:- The argument of §§7–8 here is substantially identical with that of MN 84.]

Suppose a noble were to kill living beings, take what is not given, misconduct himself in sensual pleasures, speak falsely, speak maliciously, speak harshly, gossip, be covetous, have a mind of ill will, and hold wrong view. On the dissolution of the body, after death, would only he [be likely to] reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell—and not a brahmin?

Suppose a merchant…
a worker were to kill living beings…and hold wrong view. On the dissolution of the body after death, would only he [be likely to] reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell—and not a brahmin?”

“No, Master Gotama. Whether it be a noble, or a brahmin, or a merchant, or a worker—those of all four castes who kill living beings [150]…and hold wrong view, on the dissolution of the body, after death, [are likely to] reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell.”

“Then on the strength of what [argument] or with the support of what [authority] do the brahmins in this case say thus: ‘Brahmins are the highest caste…heirs of Brahmā’?”

§ 8. “Although Master Gotama says this, still the brahmins think thus:
‘Brahmins are the highest caste…heirs of Brahmā.’”

“What do you think, Assalāyana?
Suppose a brahmin were to abstain from killing living beings, from taking what is not given, from misconduct in sensual pleasures, from false speech, from malicious speech, from harsh speech, and from gossip, and were to be uncovetous, to have a mind without ill will, and to hold right view. On the dissolution of the body, after death, would only he [be likely to] reappear in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world—
and not a noble, or a merchant, or a worker?”
“No, Master Gotama. Whether it be a noble, or a brahmin, or a merchant, or a worker—those of all four castes who abstain from killing living beings…and hold right view, on the dissolution of the body, after death, [are likely to] reappear in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world.”

“Then on the strength of what [argument] or with the support of what [authority] do the brahmins in this case say thus: ‘Brahmins are the highest caste…heirs of Brahmā’?”

§ 9. “Although Master Gotama says this, [151] still the brahmins think thus:
‘Brahmins are the highest caste…heirs of Brahmā.’”

“What do you think, Assalāyana?
Is only a brahmin capable of developing a mind of loving-kindness towards this region, without hostility and without ill will, and not a noble, or a merchant, or a worker?”
“No, Master Gotama. Whether it be a noble, or a brahmin, or a merchant, or a worker—those of all four castes are capable of developing a mind of lovingkindness towards this region, without hostility and without ill will.”

“Then on the strength of what [argument] or with the support of what [authority] do the brahmins in this case say thus: ‘Brahmins are the highest caste…heirs of Brahmā’?”

§ 10. “Although Master Gotama says this, still the brahmins think thus:
‘Brahmins are the highest caste…heirs of Brahmā.’”

“What do you think, Assalāyana?
Is only a brahmin capable of taking a loofah and bath powder, going to the river, and washing off dust and dirt, and not a noble, or a merchant, or a worker?”

“No, Master Gotama. Whether it be a noble, or a brahmin, or a merchant, or a worker—those of all four castes are capable of taking a loofah and bath powder, going to the river, and washing off dust and dirt.”

“Then on the strength of what [argument] or with the support of what [authority] do the brahmins in this case say thus: ‘Brahmins are the highest caste…heirs of Brahmā’?”

§ 11. “Although Master Gotama says this, still the brahmins think thus:
‘Brahmins are the highest caste…heirs of Brahmā.’”

“What do you think, Assalāyana? [152]
Suppose a head-anointed noble king were to assemble here a hundred men of different birth and say to them: ‘Come, sirs, let any here who have been born into a noble clan or a brahmin clan or a royal clan take an upper fire-stick of sāla wood, salala wood, sandalwood, or padumaka wood and light a fire and produce heat. And also let any who have been born into an outcast clan, a trapper clan, a wicker workers’ clan, a cartwrights’ clan, or a scavengers’ clan take an upper fire-stick made from a dog’s drinking trough, from a pig’s trough, from a dustbin, or from castor-oil wood and light a fire and produce heat.’

“What do you think, Assalāyana?
When a fire is lit and heat is produced by someone in the first group, would that fire have a flame, a colour, and a radiance, and would it be possible to use it for the purposes of fire, while when a fire is lit and heat is produced by someone of the second group, that fire would have no flame, no colour, and no radiance, and it would not be possible to use it for the purposes of fire?”
“No, Master Gotama. When a fire is lit and heat is produced by someone in the first group, that fire would have a flame, a colour, and a radiance, and it would be possible to use it for the purposes of fire. And when a fire is lit and heat is produced by someone of the second group, that fire too would have a flame, a colour, and a radiance, and it would be possible to use it for the purposes of fire. For all fire has a flame, [153] a colour, and a radiance, and it is possible to use all fire for the purposes of fire.”

“Then on the strength of what [argument] or with the support of what [authority] do the brahmins in this case say thus: ‘Brahmins are the highest caste…heirs of Brahmā’?”

§ 12. “Although Master Gotama says this, still the brahmins think thus:
‘Brahmins are the highest caste…heirs of Brahmā.’”

“What do you think, Assalāyana?
Suppose a noble youth were to cohabit with a brahmin girl, and a son was born from their cohabitation. Should a son born from a noble youth and a brahmin girl be called a noble after the father or a brahmin after the mother?”
“He could be called both, Master Gotama.”

§ 13. “What do you think, Assalāyana?
Suppose a brahmin youth here were to cohabit with a noble girl, and a son were to be born from their cohabitation.
Should the son born from a brahmin youth and a noble girl be called a noble after the mother or a brahmin after the father?”
“He could be called both, Master Gotama.”

§ 14. “What do you think, Assalāyana?
Suppose a mare were to be mated with a male donkey, and a foal were to be born as the result. Should the foal be called a horse after the mother or a donkey after the father?”
“It is a mule, Master Gotama, since it does not belong to either kind. [154] I see the difference in this last case, but I see no difference in either of the former cases.”

§ 15. “What do you think, Assalāyana?
Suppose there were two brahmin students who were brothers, born of the same mother, one studious and acute, and one neither studious nor acute. Which of them would brahmins feed first at a funeral feast, or at a ceremonial milk-rice offering, or at a sacrificial feast, or at a feast for guests?”

“On such occasions, brahmins would feed first the one who was studious and acute, Master Gotama; for how could what is given to one who is neither studious nor acute bring great fruit?”

§ 16. “What do you think, Assalāyana?
Suppose there were two brahmin students who were brothers, born of the same mother, one studious and acute, but immoral and of bad character, and one neither studious nor acute, but virtuous and of good character.
Which of them would brahmins feed first at a funeral feast, or at a ceremonial milk-rice offering, or at a sacrificial feast, or at a feast for guests?”

“On such occasions, brahmins would feed first the one who was neither studious nor acute, but virtuous and of good character, Master Gotama; for how could what is given to one who is immoral and of bad character bring great fruit?”

§ 17. “First, Assalāyana, you took your stand on birth, and after that you took your stand on scriptural learning, and after that you have come to take your stand on the very ground that purification is for all four castes, as I describe it.”
When this was said, the brahmin student Assalāyana sat silent and dismayed, with shoulders drooping and head down, glum, and without response. Knowing this, the Blessed One said to him:

§ 18. “Once, Assalāyana, when seven brahmin seers were consulting together in leaf huts in the forest, this pernicious view arose in them: ‘Brahmins are the highest caste…[155]…heirs of Brahmā.’ Now the seer Devala the Dark heard this.874

[874:- MA identifies Devala the Dark, Asita Devala, with the Buddha in an earlier life. The Buddha undertakes this teaching to show: “In the past, when you were of a superior birth and I was of an inferior birth, you could not answer a question I asked you about an assertion concerning birth. So how can you do so now, when you are inferior and I have become a Buddha?”]

Then he arranged his hair and beard, dressed in ochre-coloured garments, put on stout sandals, and taking a staff made of gold, he appeared in the courtyard of the seven brahmin seers. Then, while walking up and down the courtyard of the seven brahmin seers, the seer Devala the Dark spoke thus:
‘Where have those worthy brahmin seers gone? Where have those worthy brahmin seers gone?’ Then the seven brahmin seers thought:
‘Who is walking up and down in the courtyard of the seven brahmin seers like a village lout speaking thus: “Where have those worthy brahmin seers gone? Where have those worthy brahmin seers gone?” Let us curse him!’

Then the seven brahmin seers cursed the seer Devala the Dark thus: ‘Be ashes, vile one! Be ashes, vile one!’ But the more the seven brahmin seers cursed him, the more comely, beautiful, and handsome the seer Devala the Dark became.

Then the seven brahmin seers thought: ‘Our asceticism is in vain, our holy life is fruitless; for formerly when we cursed anyone thus: “Be ashes, vile one! Be ashes, vile one!” he always became ashes; but the more we curse this one, the more comely, beautiful, and handsome he becomes.’

“‘Your asceticism is not in vain, sirs, your holy life is not fruitless. But, sirs, put away your hatred towards me.’ [156]
“‘We have put away our hatred towards you, sir. Who are you?’
“‘Have you heard of the seer Devala the Dark, sirs?’—
‘Yes, sir.’—
‘I am he, sirs.’

“Then the seven brahmin seers went to the seer Devala the Dark and paid homage to him. Then he said to them: ‘Sirs, I heard that while the seven brahmin seers were dwelling in leaf huts in the forest, this pernicious view arose in them:
“Brahmins are the highest caste…heirs of Brahmā.”’—
‘That is so, sir.’
“‘But, sirs, do you know if the mother who bore you went only with a brahmin and never with a non-brahmin?’—
‘No, sir.’
“‘But, sirs, do you know if your mother’s mothers back to the seventh generation went only with brahmins and never with non-brahmins?’—
‘No, sir.’
“‘But, sirs, do you know if the father who begot you went only with a brahmin woman and never with a non-brahmin woman?’—
‘No, sir.’
“‘But, sirs, do you know if your father’s fathers back to the seventh generation went only with brahmin women and never with non-brahmin women?’—
‘No, sir.’
“‘But, sirs, do you know how the descent of an embryo comes about?’

§ 19. “‘Sir, we know how the descent of an embryo comes about. [157] Here, there is the union of the mother and father, and the mother is in season, and the gandhabba is present. Thus the descent of an embryo comes about through the union of these three things.’875

[875:- As in MN 38.26. MA: The gandhabba is the being arriving there. It is not someone (i.e., a disembodied spirit) standing nearby watching the future parents having intercourse, but a being driven on by the mechanism of kamma, due to be reborn on that occasion.
The exact import of the word gandhabba in relation to the rebirth process is not explained in the Nikāyas, and the word in this sense occurs only here and at 93.18. DN 15 Maha Nidana Sutta/ii.63 speaks of consciousness as “descending into the mother’s womb,” this being a condition for rebirth to take place. Thus we might identify the gandhabba here as the stream of consciousness, conceived more animistically as coming over from the previous existence and bringing along its
total accumulation of kammic tendencies and personality traits. The fullest study of the concept of the gandhabba is Wijesekera, “Vedic Gandharva and Pali Gandhabba,” in Buddhist and Vedic Studies, pp. 191–202.

. Note that the dialogue just below establishes the meaning of gandhabba as the deceased being about to be reborn.]

‘Then, sirs, do you know for sure whether that gandhabba is a noble, or a brahmin, or a merchant, or a worker?’
“‘Sir, we do not know for sure whether that gandhabba is a noble, or a brahmin, or a merchant, or a worker.’
“‘That being so, sirs, then what are you?’
“‘That being so, sir, we do not know what we are.’
“Now, Assalāyana, even those seven brahmin seers, on being pressed and questioned and cross-questioned by the seer Devala the Dark on their own assertion about birth, were unable to support it. But how shall you, on being pressed and questioned and cross-questioned by me now on your assertion about birth, be able to support it? You, who rely on the teachers’ doctrines, are not [even fit to be] their spoon-holder Puṇṇa.”876

[876:- MA: Punna was the name of a servant of the seven seers; he would take a spoon, cook leaves, and serve them.]

§ 19. When this was said, the brahmin student Assalāyana said to the Blessed One:
“Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overthrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms.

I go to Master Gotama for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. From today let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life.”

092 Sela Sutta

§ 1,THUS HAVE I HEARD.867
On one occasion the Blessed One was wandering in the country of the Anguttarāpans with a large Sangha of bhikkhus, [102] with twelve hundred and fifty bhikkhus, and eventually he arrived at a town of the Anguttarāpans named Āpaṇa.

[867:- The text of this sutta has not been included in the PTS ed. of the Majjhima Nikāya, as it is identical with the sutta of the same name in the Sutta Nipāta, published in two different versions by the PTS. The bracketed page numbers here therefore refer to the more recent PTS ed. of Sn, edited by Dines Anderson and Helmer Smith]

§ 2. The matted-hair ascetic Keṇiya heard: “The recluse Gotama, the son of the Sakyans who went forth from a Sakyan clan, has been wandering in the country of the Anguttarāpans with a large Sangha of bhikkhus, with twelve hundred and fifty [103] bhikkhus, and he has come to Āpaṇa.

Now a good report of Master Gotama has been spread to this effect
‘The Blessed One is accomplished, fully enlightened, perfect in true knowledge and conduct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, enlightened, blessed.
He declares this world with its gods, its Māras, and its Brahmās, this generation with its recluses and brahmins, with its princes and its people, which he has himself realised with direct knowledge.
He teaches the Dhamma that is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, and he reveals a holy life that is utterly perfect and pure.’ Now it is good to see such arahants.” [134]”

§ 3. Then the matted-hair ascetic Keṇiya went to the Blessed One and exchanged greetings with him, and when this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side.

The Blessed One instructed, urged, roused, and gladdened him with a talk on the Dhamma. Then, having been instructed, urged, roused, and gladdened by the Blessed One with a talk on the Dhamma, the matted-hair ascetic Keṇiya said to the Blessed One:
“Let Master Gotama together with the Sangha of bhikkhus consent to accept tomorrow’s meal from me.”

§ 4. When this was said, the Blessed One told him:
“The Sangha of bhikkhus is large, Keṇiya, [104] consisting of twelve hundred and fifty bhikkhus, and you place full confidence in the brahmins.”
A second time the matted-hair ascetic Keṇiya said to the Blessed One:
“Although the Sangha of bhikkhus is large, Master Gotama, consisting of twelve hundred and fifty bhikkhus, and although I place full confidence in the brahmins, still let Master Gotama, together with the Sangha of bhikkhus, consent to accept tomorrow’s meal from me.”

A second time the Blessed One told him: “The Sangha of bhikkhus is large, Keṇiya…”
A third time the matted-hair ascetic Keṇiya said to the Blessed One:
“Although the Sangha is large, Master Gotama…still let Master Gotama together with the Sangha of bhikkhus consent to accept tomorrow’s meal from me.”
The Blessed One consented in silence.

§ 4. Then, knowing that the Blessed One had consented, the matted-hair ascetic Keṇiya rose from his seat and went to his own hermitage where he addressed his friends and companions, his kinsmen and relatives thus:
“Hear me, sirs, my friends and companions, my kinsmen and relatives. The recluse Gotama has been invited by me for tomorrow’s meal together with the Sangha of bhikkhus.
Make the necessary purchases and preparations for me.”
“Yes, sir,”
they replied, and some dug out ovens, some chopped wood, some washed dishes, some set out water jugs, some prepared seats, while the mattedhair ascetic Keṇiya himself set up a pavilion.

§ 5. Now on that occasion the brahmin Sela was staying at Āpaṇa. [105] He was a master of the Three Vedas with their vocabularies, liturgy, phonology, and etymology, and the histories as a fifth; skilled in philology and grammar, he was fully versed in natural philosophy and in the marks of a Great Man, and was teaching the recitation of the hymns to three hundred brahmin students.

§ 6. At the time the matted-hair ascetic Keṇiya had placed full confidence in the brahmin Sela. Then the brahmin Sela, while walking and wandering for exercise attended by his three hundred brahmin students, came to the matted-hair ascetic Keṇiya’s hermitage. There he saw some men digging out ovens, some chopping wood, some washing dishes, some setting up a water-pot, some preparing seats, while the matted-hair ascetic Keṇiya himself was preparing the pavilion.

§ 7. When he saw this, he asked the matted-hair ascetic Keṇiya:
“What, is Master Keṇiya to hold a marriage or a giving in marriage?
Or is there some great sacrifice?
Or has King Seniya Bimbisāra of Magadha been invited with a large retinue for tomorrow’s meal?”

§ 8. “I will not be holding a marriage or a giving in marriage, Master Sela, nor has King Seniya Bimbisāra of Magadha been invited with a large retinue for tomorrow’s meal, but I am planning a great sacrifice. The recluse Gotama, the son of the Sakyans who went forth from a Sakyan clan, has been wandering in the country of the Anguttarāpans with a large Sangha of bhikkhus, with twelve hundred and fifty bhikkhus, and has come to Āpaṇa. [106]

Now a good report of Master Gotama has been spread to this effect: ‘
That Blessed One is accomplished, fully enlightened, perfect in true knowledge and conduct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, enlightened [buddha], blessed.’ He has been invited by me for tomorrow’s meal together with the Sangha of bhikkhus.”

§ 9. “Did you say ‘Buddha,’ Keṇiya?”
“I said ‘Buddha,’ Sela.”
“Did you say ‘Buddha,’ Keṇiya?”
“I said ‘Buddha,’ Sela.”

§ 10. Then it occurred to the brahmin Sela:
“Even this sound ‘Buddha’ is hard to come across in this world. Now the thirty-two marks of a Great Man have been handed down in our hymns, and the Great Man who is endowed with them has only two possible destinies, no other. If he lives the home life he becomes a Wheel-turning Monarch, a righteous king who rules by the Dhamma, master of the four quarters, all-victorious, who has stabilised his country and possesses the seven treasures. He has these seven treasures: the wheel-treasure, the elephant treasure, the horse-treasure, the jewel-treasure, the woman-treasure, the steward treasure, and the counsellor-treasure as the seventh.

His children, who exceed a thousand, are brave and heroic and crush the armies of others; over this earth bounded by the ocean he rules without a rod, without a weapon, by means of the Dhamma. But if he goes forth from the home life into homelessness, he becomes an Accomplished One, a Fully Enlightened One, who draws aside the veil in the world.”

§. 11. [He said]: “My good Keṇiya, where is Master Gotama, the Accomplished One, the Fully Enlightened One, now living?”
When this was said, the matted-hair ascetic Keṇiya extended his right arm and said: [107]
“There, where that green line of the grove is, Master Sela.”

§ 12. Then the brahmin Sela went with the three hundred brahmin students to the Blessed One. He addressed the brahmin students:
“Come quietly, sirs, tread carefully; for these Blessed Ones are difficult to approach like lions that wander alone. When I am speaking with the recluse Gotama, do not break in and interrupt me, but wait until our talk is finished.”

§ 13. Then the brahmin Sela went to the Blessed One and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and looked for the thirty-two marks of a Great Man on the Blessed One’s body. He saw, more or less, the thirty-two marks of a Great Man on the Blessed One’s body, except two; he was doubtful and uncertain about two of the marks, and he could not decide and make up his mind about them: about the male organ being enclosed in a sheath and about the largeness of the tongue.

Then it occurred to the Blessed One: “This brahmin Sela sees the thirty-two marks of a Great Man on me, except two; he is doubtful and uncertain about two of the marks, and he cannot decide and make up his mind about them: about the male organ being enclosed in a sheath and about the largeness of the tongue.”

§ 14. Then the Blessed One worked such a feat of supernormal power that the brahmin Sela saw that the Blessed One’s male organ was enclosed in a sheath.

[108] Next the Blessed One extruded his tongue, and he repeatedly touched both ear holes and both nostrils, and he covered the whole of his forehead with his tongue.

§ 15. Then the brahmin Sela thought: “The recluse Gotama is endowed with the thirty-two marks of a Great Man; they are complete, not incomplete. But I do not know whether he is a Buddha or not. However, I have heard from elder aged brahmins who speak according to the lineage of teachers that those who are the Accomplished Ones, Fully Enlightened Ones, reveal themselves as such when their praise is spoken. Suppose I extol the recluse Gotama to his face with fitting stanzas.”
Then he extolled the Blessed One to his face with fitting stanzas:


§ 16. Sela
“O perfect in body, well favoured,
Well fashioned and lovely to behold;
O Blessed One, golden is your colour,
And white your teeth; you are strong.

The features are seen one and all
That distinguish a man as well born;
They are all to be found on your body,
These marks that reveal a Great Man.

With eyes clear, with countenance bright,
Majestic, erect as a flame,
In the midst of this body of recluses
You shine like the blazing sun.

A bhikkhu so lovely to look on
With skin of so golden a sheen—
With beauty so rare why should you
Be content with the life of a recluse?

You are fit to be a king, a lord of charioteers,
A monarch who makes the wheel turn,
A victor in all the four quarters
And lord of the Jambu-tree Grove.868 [109]

With warriors and great princes
All devoted to your service,
O Gotama, you should reign
As ruler of men, king above all kings.”

[868:- That is, Jambudı̄pa, the Indian subcontinent]


§ 17.Buddha
“I am already a king, O Sela,”
the Blessed One replied.
“I am supreme king of the Dhamma;
By means of the Dhamma I turn the wheel,
The wheel that none can stop.”

§ 18.Sela
“You claim full enlightenment,” the brahmin Sela said,
“You tell me, O Gotama,
‘I am supreme king of the Dhamma;
By means of the Dhamma I turn the wheel.’

Who is your general, that disciple
Who follows in the Master’s own way?
Who is it who helps you to turn
The Wheel of Dhamma set in motion by you?”

§ 19.Buddha
“The wheel set in motion by me,”
the Blessed One replied,
“That same supreme Wheel of Dhamma,
Sāriputta the Tathāgata’s son
Helps me in turning this wheel.
What must be known is directly known,
What must be developed has been developed,
What must be abandoned has been abandoned,
Therefore, brahmin, I am a Buddha.
So put away all your doubts about me
And let resolution take their place,
For it is always hard to gain
Sight of the Enlightened Ones. [110]
I am the one whose presence in the world
Is very rarely come upon,
I am the Fully Enlightened One,
I, O brahmin, am the supreme physician.
I am the holy one, without an equal,
Who has crushed all Māra’s teeming hordes;
Having defeated all my enemies,
I rejoice free from fear.”

§ 20. Sela
“O sirs, hear this, hear what he says,
The man of vision, the physician,
The mighty hero who roars
Like a lion in the forest.
Who, even though of outcast birth,
Would not believe him when he saw
That he is the holy one, without an equal,
Who has crushed all Māra’s teeming hordes?
Now let him follow me who wants
And who wants not, let him depart.
For I will go forth under him,
This man of lofty wisdom.”

§ 21. Pupils
“If, O sir, you now approve
This teaching of the Enlightened One,
We too will go forth under him,
This man of lofty wisdom.”

§ 22. Sela
“There are three hundred brahmins here
Who with uplifted hands implore:
‘O may we live the holy life
Under you, O Blessed One.’”

§ 23 Buddha
“The holy life is well proclaimed,
O Sela,” said the Blessed One,
“To be seen here and not delayed;
One who trains with diligence
Will find a fruitful going forth.”

§ 24. Then the brahmin Sela and his assembly received the going forth under the Blessed One, and they received the full admission.

§ 25. Then, when the night had ended, the matted-hair ascetic Keṇiya had good food of various kinds prepared in his own hermitage [111] and had the time announced to the Blessed One: “It is time, Master Gotama, the meal is ready.”

Then, it being morning, the Blessed One dressed, and taking his bowl and outer robe, he went with the Sangha of bhikkhus to the hermitage of the matted-hair ascetic Keṇiya and sat down on the seat made ready. Then, with his own hands, the matted-hair ascetic Keṇiya served and satisfied the Sangha of bhikkhus headed by the Buddha with various kinds of good food. When the Blessed One had eaten and had put his bowl aside, the matted-hair ascetic Keṇiya took a low
seat and sat down on one side. Thereupon the Blessed One gave him his blessing with these stanzas:

§ 26.“Burnt offerings are the glory of fires,
Sāvitrī the glory of Vedic hymns,
Glory of human beings, a king,
Glory of flowing rivers, the sea;

The moon is the glory of the stars,
The sun is the glory of all that shine;
Merit is the glory of all who aspire;
The Sangha, glory of those who give.”

When the Blessed One had given his blessing with these stanzas, he rose from his seat and departed.

§ 27. Then, not long after their full admission, dwelling alone, withdrawn, diligent, ardent, and resolute, the venerable Sela and his assembly, [112] by realising for themselves with direct knowledge, here and now entered upon and abided in that supreme goal of the holy life for the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth from the home life into homelessness. They directly knew:
“Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.” And the venerable Sela together with his assembly became arahants.

§28. Then the venerable Sela together with his assembly went to the Blessed One. Having arranged his upper robe on one shoulder, extending his hands in reverential greeting towards the Blessed One, he addressed him with these stanzas:

“Eight days have passed, All-Seeing One,
Since we went to you for refuge.
In these seven nights, O Blessed One,
We have been tamed in your teaching.

You are the Buddha, you are the Teacher,
You are the Sage, the conqueror of Māra.
Having cut off all evil tendencies,
You have crossed and guide humanity across.

You have surmounted all acquisitions,
You have removed all the taints.
You are a lion free from clinging,
You have abandoned fear and dread.

Here these three hundred bhikkhus stand
With hands held out in adoration.
O Hero, extend your feet,
And let these great beings worship the Teacher.”

100 Sangārava Sutta.

§ 1.  THUS HAVE I HEARD.
On one occasion the Blessed One was wandering in the Kosalan country with a large Sangha of bhikkhus.

§ 2.  Now on that occasion a brahmin woman named Dhānañjānī was staying at Caṇḍalakappa, having full confidence in the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha.917

[917:- Dhānañjānı̄ was a stream-enterer. MA says that Sangārava was her husband’s younger brother.]

One time she stumbled, and [on recovering her balance] exclaimed three times: “Honour to the Blessed One, accomplished and fully enlightened! Honour to the Blessed One, accomplished and fully enlightened! Honour to the Blessed One, accomplished [210] and fully enlightened!”

§ 3.  At the time there was a brahmin student named Sangārava staying at Caṇḍalakappa. He was a master of the Three Vedas, with their vocabularies, liturgy, phonology, and etymology, and the histories as the fifth; skilled in philology and grammar, he was fully versed in natural philosophy and in the marks of a Great Man.

Having heard the brahmin woman Dhānañjānī utter those words, he said to her:
“This brahmin woman Dhānañjānī must be disgraced and degraded, since when there are brahmins around she praises that bald-pated recluse.”

[She replied:] “My dear sir, you do not know the virtue and wisdom of the Blessed One. If you knew that Blessed One’s virtue and wisdom, my dear sir, you would never think of abusing and reviling him.”

Then, madam, inform me when the recluse Gotama comes to Caṇḍalakappa.”
“Yes, dear sir,
” the brahmin woman Dhānañjāni replied.

§ 4. Then, after wandering by stages in the Kosalan country, the Blessed One eventually arrived at Caṇḍalakappa. There in Cạ̣alakappa the Blessed One lived in the Mango Grove belonging to the brahmins of the Todeyya clan.

§  5 The brahmin woman Dhānañjānī heard that the Blessed One had arrived, so she went to the brahmin student Sangārava and told him:
“My dear sir, the Blessed One has arrived in Caṇḍalakappa and he is living here in Caṇḍalakappa in the Mango Grove belonging to the brahmins of the Todeyya clan. Now, dear Sir, you may go at your own convenience.”
“Yes, madam,” he replied. Then he went to the Blessed One and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous [211] and amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and said:

§ 6.  “Master Gotama, there are some recluses and brahmins who claim [to teach] the fundamentals of the holy life after having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge here and now.918

[918:- Diṭṭadhammābhiññāvosānapāramippattā ādibrahmacariyaṁ paṭijānanti. MA glosses: They claim to be the originators, creators, producers of a holy life, saying: “Having directly known here and now in this present existence and having reached the consummation, we have attained Nibbāna, called ‘perfection’ because it is the transcendence of everything.”]

Where among these recluses and brahmins does Master Gotama stand?”

§ 7 “Bhāradvāja, I say that there is a diversity among those recluses and brahmins who claim [to teach] the fundamentals of the holy life after having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge here and now.

(a) There are some recluses and brahmins who are traditionalists, who on the basis of oral tradition claim [to teach] the fundamentals of the holy life after having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge here and now; such are the brahmins of the Three Vedas.

(b) There are some recluses and brahmins who, entirely on the basis of mere faith, claim [to teach] the fundamentals of the holy life after having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge here and now; such are the reasoners and investigators.919

[919:- It is puzzling that the reasoners and investigators (thakkı̄, vı̄mansı̄) are here said to rely on the basis of mere faith (saddhā-mattakena). Elsewhere faith and reasoning are contrasted as two different grounds of conviction (MN 95.14), and
“mere faith” seems more closely allied with reliance on oral tradition than with reasoning and investigation.]

(c) There are some recluses and brahmins who, having directly known the Dhamma for themselves920 among things not heard before, claim [to teach] the fundamentals of the holy life after having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge here and now.

[920:- Sāmaṁ yeva dhammaṁ abhiññāya. This phrase emphasises direct personal realisation as the foundation for promulgating a holy life.]

§ 8. “I, Bhāradvāja, am one of those recluses and brahmins who, having directly known the Dhamma for themselves among things not heard before, claim [to teach] the fundamentals of the holy life after having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge here and now. As to how I am one of those recluses and brahmins, that may be understood in the following way.

§ 9. “Here, Bhāradvāja, before my enlightenment, while I was still only an unenlightened Bodhisatta, I considered thus: ‘Household life is crowded and dusty; life gone forth is wide open. It is not easy while living in a home to lead the holy life utterly perfect and pure as a polished shell. Suppose I shave off my hair and beard, put on the yellow robe, and go forth from the home life into homelessness.’

§ 10. “Later, Bhāradvāja, [212] while still young, a black-haired young man endowed with the blessing of youth, in the prime of life, though my mother and father wished otherwise and wept with tearful faces, I shaved off my hair and beard, put on the yellow robe, and went forth from the home life into homelessness.

§ 11. “Having gong forth, Bhāradvāja, in search of what is wholesome, seeking the supreme state of sublime peace, I went to Alara Kalamajand said to him:
Friend Kalama, I want to lead the holy life in this Dhamma and Discipline.”
Alara Kalama replied:
‘The venerable one may stay here. This Dhamma is such that a wise man [164] can soon enter upon and abide in it, realising for himself through direct knowledge his own teacher’s doctrine.’
I soon quickly learned that Dhamma. As far as mere lip-reciting and rehearsal of his teaching went, I could speak with knowledge and assurance, and I claimed, ‘I know and see’ – and there were others who did likewise.

“I considered: ‘It is not through mere faith alone that Alara Kalama declares: “By realising for myself with direct knowledge, I enter upon and abide in this Dhamma.” Certainly Alara Kalama abides knowing and seeing this Dhamma.’ Then I went to Alara Kalama and asked him: ‘Friend Kalama, in what way do you declare that by realising for yourself with direct knowledge you enter upon and abide in this Dhamma?’ In reply he declared the base of nothingness.301

[301 MA: He taught me the seven attainments (of serenity meditation) ending in the base of nothingness, the third of the four immaterial attainments. Though these attainments are spiritually exalted, they are still mundane and not in themselves directly conducive to Nibbana.]

“I considered:
Not only Alara Kalama has faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom. I too have faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom. Suppose I endeavour to realise the Dhamma that Alara Kalama declares he enters upon and abides in by realising for himself with direct knowledge?’

“I soon quickly entered upon and abided in that Dhamma by realising for myself with direct knowledge. Then I went to Alara Kalama and asked him:
‘Friend Kalama, is it in this way that you declare that you enter upon and abide in this Dhamma by realising for yourself with direct knowledge?’ –

That is the way, friend.’ –
‘It is in this way, friend, that I also enter upon and abide in this Dhamma by realising for myself with direct knowledge.’

‘It is a gain for us, friend, it is a great gain for us that we have such a venerable one for our companion in the holy life. So the Dhamma that I declare I enter upon and abide in by realising for myself with direct knowledge is the Dhamma that you enter upon and abide in by realising for yourself with direct knowledge. [165] And the Dhamma that you enter upon and abide in by realising for yourself with direct knowledge is the Dhamma that I declare I enter upon and abide in by realising for myself with direct knowledge. So you know the Dhamma that I know and I know the Dhamma that you know. As I am, so are you; as you are, so am I, Come, friend, let us now lead this community together.’

“Thus Alara Kalama, my teacher, placed me, his pupil, on an equal footing with himself and awarded me the highest honour.  But it occurred to me: ‘This Dhamma does not lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbana, but only to reappearance in the base of nothingness.’302

[302:-That is, it leads to rebirth in the plane of existence called the base of nothingness, the objective counterpart of the seventh meditative attainment. Here the lifespan is supposed to be 60,000 aeons,. but when that has elapsed one must pass away and return to a lower world. Thus one who attains this is still not free from birth and death but is caught in the trap of Mara (MA). Horner misses the point that rebirth is the issue by translating “only as far as reaching the plane of no-thing” (MLS 1:209).]

§  12. “Still in search, Bharadvaja, of what is wholesome, seeking the supreme state of sublime peace, I went to Uddaka Ramaputta and said to him: ‘Friend, I want to lead the holy life in this Dhamma and Discipline.’303

[303:-Both Horner in MLS and Nm in Ms err in their translations of the account of the Bodhisatta’s meeting with Uddaka Ramaputta by assuming that Uddaka is identical with Rama. However, as his name indicates, Uddaka was the son (putta) of Rama, either biological or spiritual. Rama himself must have already passed away before the Bodhisatta arrived on the scene. It should be noted that all references to Rama are in the past tense and the third person, and that Uddaka in the end places the Bodhisatta in the position of teacher. Though the text does not allow for definite conclusions, this suggests that he himself had not yet reached the fourth immaterial attainment.]

Uddaka Ramaputta replied:
‘The venerable one may stay here. This Dhamma is such that a wise man can soon enter upon and abide in it, himself realising through direct knowledge his own teacher’s doctrine.’ I soon quickly learned that Dhamma. As far as mere lip-reciting and rehearsal of his teaching went, I could speak with knowledge and assurance, and I claimed, ‘I know and see’ – and there were others who did likewise.

“I considered: ‘It was not through mere faith alone that Rama declared-. “By realising for myself with direct knowledge, I enter upon and abide in this Dhamma.” Certainly Rama abided knowing and seeing this Dhamma.’

Then I went to Uddaka Ramaputta and asked him: ‘Friend, in what way did Rama declare that by realising for himself with direct knowledge he entered upon and abided in this Dhamma?’ In reply Uddaka Ramaputta declared the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception.

“I considered:
‘Not only Rama had faith, [166] energy, mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom. I too have faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom. Suppose I endeavour to realise the Dhamma that Rama declared he entered upon and abided in by realising for himself with direct knowledge.’

“I soon quickly entered upon and abided in that Dhamma by realising for myself with direct knowledge. Then I went to Uddaka Ramaputta and asked him:
Friend, was it in this way that Rama declared that he entered upon and abided in this Dhamma by realising for himself with direct knowledge?’ –

That is the way friend.’ –
‘It is in this way, friend, that I also enter upon and abide in this Dhamma by realising for myself with direct knowledge.’

It is a gain for us, friend, it is a great gain for us that we have such a venerable one for our companion jn the holy life. So the Dhamma that Rama declared he entered upon and abided in by realising for himself with direct knowledge is the Dhamma that you enter upon and abide in by realising for yourself with direct knowledge. And the Dhamma that you enter upon and abide in by realising for yourself with direct knowledge is the Dhamma that Rama declared he entered upon and abided in by realising for himself with direct knowledge.

So you know the Dhamma that Rama knew and Rama knew the Dhamma that you know. As Rama was, so are you; as you are, so was Rama. Come, friend, now lead this community.’

“Thus Uddaka Ramaputta, my companion in the holy life, placed me in the position of a teacher and accorded me the highest honour.

But it occurred to me:
‘This Dhamma does not lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbana, but only to reappearance in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception.’

Not being satisfied with that Dhamma, I left it and went away.

§  13. “Still in search, Bharadvaja , of what is wholesome, seeking  the supreme state of sublime peace, I wandered by stages ; through the Magadhan country until eventually I arrived at in Senanigama near Uruvela. [167]

There I saw an agreeable piece of ground, a delightful grove with a clear-flowing river with  pleasant, smooth banks and nearby a village for alms resort. I  considered: ‘This is an agreeable piece of ground, this is a delightful grove with a clear flowing river with pleasant smooth banks and nearby a village for alms resort. This will serve for the striving of a clansman intent on striving. And I sat down there thinking: ‘This will serve for striving. ‘ 304

[304:-MN 36, which includes the account of the Bodhisatta’s meetings with Alara Kalama and U ddaka Ramaputta,continues from this point with the story of the extreme ascetic practices that brought him to the verge of death and of his subsequent discovery of the Middle Way that led to enlightenment.]

§ 14. “Now these three similes occurred to me spontaneously, never heard before.

(i) Suppose there were a wet sappy piece of wood lying in water, and a man came with an upper fire-stick, thinking: ‘I shall light a fire, I shall produce heat.’

What do you think, Bharadvaja?
Could the man light a fire and produce heat by taking the upper fire-stick and rubbing it against the wet sappy piece of wood lying in the water?”
“No, Master Gotama.

Why not?
Because it is a wet sappy piece of wood, [241] and it is lying in water. Eventually the man would reap only weariness and disappointment.”

“So too, Bharadvaja, as to those recluses and brahmins who still do not live bodily withdrawn from sensual pleasures, and whose sensual desire, affection, infatuation, thirst, and fever for sensual pleasures has not been fully abandoned and suppressed internally, even if those good recluses and brahmins feel painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, they are incapable of knowledge and vision and supreme enlightenment; and even if those good recluses and brahmins do not feel painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, they are incapable of knowledge and vision and supreme enlightenment.

This was the first simile that occurred to me spontaneously, never heard before.

§15 . “Again, Bharadvaja, a second simile occurred to me spontaneously, never heard before.
(ii). Suppose there were a wet sappy piece of wood lying on dry land far from water, and a man came with an upper fire-stick, thinking: ‘I shall light a fire, I shall produce heat.’

What do you think, Bharadvaja?
Could the man light a fire and produce heat by taking the upper fire-stick and rubbing it against the wet sappy piece of wood lying on dry land far from water?”
“No, Master Gotama.

Why not?
Because it is a wet sappy piece of wood, even though it is lying on dry land far from water. Eventually the man would reap only weariness and disappointment.”

“So too, Bharadvaja, as to those recluses and brahmins who live bodily withdrawn from sensual pleasures,386 but whose sensual desire, affection, infatuation, thirst, and fever for sensual pleasures has not been fully abandoned and suppressed internally, even if those good recluses and brahmins feel painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, they are incapable of knowledge and vision and supreme enlightenment; and even if those good recluses and brahmins do not feel painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, they are incapable of knowledge and vision and supreme enlightenment. This was the second simile that occurred to me spontaneously, never heard before.

[386:- PTS is certainly mistaken in reading here avūpakaṭṭho, “not withdrawn.” In the first edition I translated this passage on the basis of BBS, which has kāyena c’eva cittena ca. But PTS and SBJ omit cittena, and it seems difficult to understand how these ascetics can be described as “mentally withdrawn” from sensual pleasures when they have not stilled sensual desire within themselves. I therefore follow PTS and SBJ.]

§ 16. “Again, Bharadvaja, a third simile occurred to me [242] spontaneously, never heard before.

(iii) . Suppose there were a dry sapless piece of wood lying on dry land far from water, and a man came with an upper fire-stick, thinking: ‘I shall light a fire, I shall produce heat.’

What do you think, Bharadvaja?
Could the man light a fire and produce heat by rubbing it against the dry sapless piece of wood lying on dry land far from water?”
“Yes, Master Gotama.

Why so?
Because it is a dry sapless piece of wood, and it is lying on dry land far from water.”

“So too, Bharadvaja, as to those recluses and brahmins who live bodily withdrawn from sensual pleasures, and whose sensual desire, affection, infatuation, thirst, and fever for sensual pleasures has been fully abandoned and suppressed internally, even if those good recluses and brahmins feel painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, they are capable of knowledge and vision and supreme enlightenment; and even if those good recluses and brahmins do not feel painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, they are capable of knowledge and vision and supreme nlightenment.387

[387:- MA explains that “development of body” here is insight, and “development of mind” concentration. When the noble disciple experiences pleasant feeling, he does not become overwhelmed by it because, through his development of insight, he understands the feeling to be impermanent, unsatisfactory, and not self; and when he experiences painful feeling, he does not become overwhelmed by it because, through his development of concentration, he is able to escape from it by entering into one of the meditative absorptions]

This was the third simile that occurred to me spontaneously, never heard before.

These are the three similes that occurred to me spontaneously, never heard before.

§17 “I thought: ‘Suppose, with my teeth clenched and my tongue pressed against the roof of my mouth, I beat down, constrain, and crush mind with mind.’ So, with my teeth clenched and my tongue pressed against the roof of my mouth, I beat down, constrained, and crushed mind with mind.

While I did so, sweat ran from my armpits. Just as a strong man might seize a weaker man by the head or shoulders and beat him down, constrain him, and crush him, so too, with my teeth clenched and my tongue pressed against the roof of my mouth, I beat down, constrained, and crushed mind with mind, and sweat ran from my armpits. But although tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was overwrought [243] and agitated because I was exhausted by the painful striving.“

§18 . I thought: ‘Suppose I practise the breathingless meditation.
’ So I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth and nose.
While I did so, there was a loud sound of winds coming out from my earholes. Just as there is a loud sound when a smith’s bellows are blown, so too, while I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my nose and ears, there was a loud sound of winds coming out from my earholes.

But although tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was overwrought and agitated because I was exhausted by the painful striving.

§19. “I thought: ‘Suppose I practise further the breathing-less meditation.’
So I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears.

While I did so, violent winds cut through my head. Just as if a strong man were to crush my head with the tip of a sharp sword, so too, while I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears, violent winds cut through my head. But although tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was overwrought and agitated because I was exhausted by the painful striving.

§20 .“I thought: ‘Suppose I practise further the breathingless meditation.’
So I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears.
While I did so, there were violent pains in my head. Just as if a strong man [244] were tightening a tough leather strap around my head as a headband, so too, while I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears, there were violent pains in my head.

But although tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was overwrought and agitated because I was exhausted by the painful striving.

§ 21 . “I thought: ‘Suppose I practise further the breathingless meditation.’
So I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears.
While I did so, violent winds carved up my belly. Just as if a skilled butcher or his apprentice were to carve up an ox’s belly with a sharp butcher’s knife, so too, while I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears, violent winds carved up my belly.

But although tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was overwrought and agitated because I was exhausted by the painful striving.

§22 .“I thought: ‘Suppose I practise further the breathingless meditation.’
So I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears.
While I did so, there was a violent burning in my body. Just as if two strong men were to seize a weaker man by both arms and roast him over a pit of hot coals, so too, while I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears, there was a violent burning in my body.

But although tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was overwrought and agitated because I was exhausted by the painful striving.

“Now when [245] deities saw me, some said:
‘The recluse Gothama is dead.’
Other deities said: ‘The recluse Gotama is not dead, he is dying.’
And other deities said: ‘The recluse Gotama is not dead nor dying; he is an arahant, for such is the way arahants abide.’

§23 .“I thought: ‘Suppose I practise entirely cutting off food.’
Then deities came to me and said: ‘Good sir, do not practise entirely cutting off food. If you do so, we shall infuse heavenly food into the pores of your skin and you will live on that.’

I considered: ‘If I claim to be completely fasting while these deities infuse heavenly food into the pores of my skin and I live on that, then I shall be lying.’

So I dismissed those deities, saying: ‘There is no need.’

§ 24. . “I thought: ‘Suppose I take very little food, a handful each time, whether of bean soup or lentil soup or vetch soup or pea soup.’

So I took very little food, a handful each time, whether of bean soup or lentil soup or vetch soup or pea soup.

While I did so, my body reached a state of extreme emaciation. Because of eating so little my limbs became like the jointed segments of vine stems or bamboo stems. Because of eating so little my backside became like a camel’s hoof. Because of eating so little the projections on my spine stood forth like corded beads.

Because of eating so little my ribs jutted out as gaunt as the crazy rafters of an old roofless barn. Because of eating so little the gleam of my eyes sank far down in their sockets, looking like the gleam of water that has sunk far down in a deep well. Because of eating so little my scalp shrivelled and withered as [246] a green bitter gourd shrivels and withers in the wind and sun. Because of eating so little my belly skin adhered to my backbone; thus if I touched my belly skin I encountered my backbone and if I touched my backbone I encountered my belly skin. Because of eating so little, if I defecated or urinated, I fell over on my face there. Because of eating so little, if I tried to ease my body by rubbing my limbs with my hands, the hair, rotted at its roots, fell from my body as I rubbed.

“Now when people saw me, some said: ‘The recluse Gotama is black.’
Other people said: ‘The recluse Gotama is not black, he is brown.’ Other people said: ‘The recluse Gotama is neither black nor brown, he is golden-skinned.’ So much had the clear, bright colour of my skin deteriorated through eating so little.

“I thought: ‘Whatever recluses or brahmins in the past have experienced painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, this is the utmost, there is none beyond this. And whatever recluses and brahmins in the future will experience painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, this is the utmost, there is none beyond this. And whatever recluses and brahmins at present experience painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, this is the utmost there is none beyond this. But by this racking practice of austerities I have not attained any superhuman states, any distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones. Could there be another path to awakening ?’

§ 24 . “I considered: ‘I recall that when my father the Sakyan was occupied, while I was sitting in the cool shade of a rose-apple tree, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, I entered upon and abided in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by thinking and pondering, with joy and pleasure born of seclusion.389 Could that be the path to awakening ?’ Then, following on that memory, came the realisation: ‘That is indeed the path to awakening.

[389:- MA: During the Bodhisatta’s boyhood as a prince, on one occasion his father led a ceremonial ploughing at a traditional festival of the Sakyans. The prince was brought to the festival and a place was prepared for him under a roseapple tree. When his attendants left him to watch the ploughing ceremony, the prince, finding himself all alone, spontaneously sat up in the meditation posture and attained the first jhāna through mindfulness of breathing. When the attendants returned and found the boy seated in meditation, they reported this to the king, who came and bowed down in veneration to his son.]

§ 25 “I thought: ‘Why [247] am I afraid of that pleasure that has nothing to do with sensual pleasures and unwholesome states?’
I thought: ‘I am not afraid of that pleasure since it has nothing to do with sensual pleasures and unwholesome states.’390

[390:- This passage marks a change in the Bodhisatta’s evaluation of pleasure; now it is no longer regarded as something to be feared and banished by the practice of austerities, but, when born of seclusion and detachment, is seen as a valuable accompaniment of the higher stages along the path to enlightenment. See MN 139.9 on the twofold division of pleasure.]

§ 26 “I considered: ‘It is not easy to attain that pleasure with a body so excessively emaciated. Suppose I ate some solid food—some boiled rice and porridge.’ And I ate some solid food—some boiled rice and porridge.

Now at that time five bhikkhus were waiting upon me, thinking: ‘If our recluse Gotama achieves some higher state, he will inform us.’ But when I ate the boiled rice and porridge, the five bhikkhus were disgusted and left me, thinking:
‘The recluse Gotama now lives luxuriously; he has given up his striving and reverted to luxury.’

§ 27. “Now when I had eaten solid food and regained my strength, then quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, I entered upon and abided in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by thinking and pondering., with joy and pleasure born of seclusion.

§ 28 .“With the stilling of thinking and pondering, I entered upon and abided in the second jhāna, which has self confidence and singleness of mind, without thinking and pondering., with joy and pleasure born of collectedness of mind.…With the fading away of joy and abiding in equanimity and mindfully , fully aware still feeling pleasure with the body.

§ 29 . I entered upon and abided in the third jhāna, on account of which noble ones announce, he has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity, and is mindful. …

§ 30 . With the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief I entered upon and abided in the fourth jhāna, which has neither pain nor pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity …

§ 32 . “When my stilled mind was thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, [248]

I directed it to knowledge of the recollection of past lives. I recollected my manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two , three births, four births, five births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty births, a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births, many aeons of world contraction, many aeons of world-expansion, many aeons of world-contraction and expansion:

‘There I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life term; and passing away from there, I reappeared elsewhere; and there too I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared here.’ Thus with their aspects and particulars I recollected my manifold past lives.

§ 33. “This was the first true knowledge attained by me in the first watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true knowledge arose, darkness was banished and light arose, as happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute. when my stilled mind was thus purified, bright and light rid of all imperfections, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, I directed it to knowledge of the passing away and reappearance of beings.

With the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, I saw beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate. I understood how beings pass on according to their actions thus:
‘These worthy beings who were ill conducted in body, speech, and mind, revilers of noble ones, wrong in their views, giving effect to wrong view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reappeared in a state of deprivation, in a bad destination, in perdition, even in hell;
but these worthy beings who were well conducted in body, [23] speech, and mind, not revilers of noble ones, right in their views, giving effect to right view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reappeared in a good destination, even in the heavenly world.’

Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, I saw beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and I understood how beings pass on according to their actions.

§ 34 .“This was the second true knowledge attained by me in the middle watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true knowledge arose, [249] darkness was banished and light arose, as happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute.

§ 35 – § 42 .“When my concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, I directed it to knowledge of the destruction of the taints. I directly knew as it actually is:
‘This is suffering’;…
‘This is the origin of suffering’;…
‘This is the cessation of suffering’;…
‘This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering’; …
‘These are the contaminants’;…
‘This is the origin of the contaminants’;…
‘This is the cessation of the contaminants’;…
‘This is the way leading to the cessation of the contaminants.’

§ 43. “When I knew and saw thus, my mind was liberated from the contaminants of sensual desire, from the contaminants of being, and from the taint of ignorance. When it was liberated there came the knowledge: ‘It is liberated.’ I directly knew: ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.’

§ 41 “This was the third true knowledge attained by me in the last watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true knowledge arose, darkness was banished and light arose, as happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute.

[392:- MA explains the “sign of concentration” (sam̄dhi-nimitta) here as the fruition attainment of emptiness (suññataphalasamāpatti ). See also MN 122.6 ]

§ 42. When this was said, the brahmin student Sangārava said to the Blessed One: “Master Gotama’s striving was unfaltering, Master Gotama’s striving was that of a true man, as it should be for an Accomplished One, a Fully Awakened One.

But how is it, Master Gotama, are there gods?”
“It is known to me to be the case, Bhāradvāja, that there are gods.”
“But how is this, Master Gotama, that when you are asked, ‘Are there gods?’
you say: ‘It is known to me to be the case, Bhāradvāja, that there are gods’? If that is so, isn’t what you say empty and false?”921

[921:- MA says that Sangārava had the idea that the Buddha spoke thus without actual knowledge, and he therefore accuses the Buddha of false speech. The sequence of ideas in this passage is difficult to follow and it is likely that the text is corrupt. K.R. Norman has proposed a reconstruction of this portion of the dialogue, but it is hard to follow him in details. See Norman, Collected Papers, 2:1–8.]

“Bhāradvāja, when one is asked, ‘Are there gods?’ [213] whether one answers, ‘There are gods,’ or ‘It is known to me to be the case [that there are gods],’ a wise man can draw the definite conclusion that there are gods.”
“But why didn’t Master Gotama answer me in the first way?”
“It is widely accepted in the world, Bhāradvāja, that there are gods.”

§ 43 When this was said, the brahmin student Sangārava said to the Blessed One:
“Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama!
Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overturned, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see.

I go to Master Gotama for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. Let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life.”

037-Cūḷa Taṇhā Sankhaya Sutta

The Shorter Discourse on the
Destruction of Craving

§ 1. THUS HAVE I HEARD.
On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Sāvatthī in the Eastern Park, in the Palace of Migāra’s Mother.

§ 2. Then Sakka, ruler of gods, went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, he stood at one side and asked:
Venerable sir, how in brief is a bhikkhu liberated in the destruction of craving, one who has reached the ultimate end, the ultimate security from bondage, the ultimate holy life, the ultimate goal, one who is foremost among gods and humans?395

§3.“Here, ruler of gods, a bhikkhu has heard that nothing is worth adhering to.
When a bhikkhu has heard that nothing is worth adhering to,
he directly knows everything;
having directly known everything, he fully understands everything;
having fully understood everything, whatever feeling he feels, whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant, he abides contemplating impermanence in those feelings,
Contemplating fading away, contemplating cessation, contemplating relinquishment. Contemplating thus, he does not cling to anything in the world.
When he does not cling, he is not agitated.
When he is not agitated, he personally attains Nibbāna.396

[395:- MA expands: “Briefly, to what extent is he said to be liberated in the destruction of craving, that is, in Nibbāna, the destruction of craving through the liberation of his mind [which occurs] by taking it [Nibbāna] as object. Teach me briefly the preliminary practice of the arahant bhikkhu by means of which he is liberated in the destruction of craving.]

[396 MA explains this passage as follows: “Everything” (sabbe dhammā) is the five aggregates, the twelve bases, the eighteen elements. These are “not worth adhering to” by way of craving and views because they turn out in actuality to be
different from the way they are grasped: grasped as permanent, pleasurable, and self, they turn out to be impermanent, suffering, and not self. He “directly knows” them as impermanent, suffering, and not self, and “fully understands” them by scrutinising them in the same way. “Contemplating impermanence,” etc., is accomplished by the insight knowledges of rise and fall and of destruction and disappearance. “He does not cling” to any formation by way of craving and views, does not become agitated because of craving, and personally attains Nibbāna by the extinguishing of all defilements.]

[252] He understands:
‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.’
Briefly, it is in this way, ruler of gods, that a bhikkhu is liberated in the destruction of craving, one who has reached the ultimate end, the ultimate security from bondage, the ultimate holy life, the ultimate goal, one who is foremost among gods and humans.”

§4. Then Sakka, ruler of gods, delighting and rejoicing in the Blessed One’s words, paid homage to the Blessed One, and keeping him on his right, he vanished at once.

§5.Now on that occasion the venerable Mahā Moggallāna was sitting not far from the Blessed One. Then he considered: “Did that spirit penetrate to the meaning of the Blessed One’s words when he rejoiced, or did he not? Suppose I found out whether he did or not.”

§6.Then, just as quickly as a strong man might extend his flexed arm or flex his extended arm, the venerable Mahā Moggallāna vanished from the Palace of Migāra’s Mother in the Eastern Park and appeared among the gods of the Thirty three.

§7.Now on that occasion Sakka, ruler of gods, was furnished and endowed a hundredfold with the five kinds of heavenly music, and he was enjoying it in the Pleasure Park of the Single Lotus. When he saw the venerable Mahā Moggallāna coming in the distance, he dismissed the music, went to the venerable Mahā Moggallāna, and said to him:
Come, good sir Moggallāna! Welcome, good sir Moggallāna! It is long, good sir Moggallāna, since you found an opportunity to come here. Sit down, good sir Moggallāna; this seat is ready.”
The venerable Mahā Moggallāna sat down on the seat made ready, and Sakka took a low seat and sat down at one side. The venerable Mahā Moggallāna then asked him:

§8. “Kosiya,397 how did the Blessed One state to you in brief deliverance in the destruction of craving? It would be good if we might also get to hear that statement.”

[397:- A personal name of Sakka, meaning “the owl.”]

“Good sir Moggallāna, we are so busy, we have so much to do, not only with our own business, but also with the business of the gods of the Thirty-three.

Besides, good sir Moggallāna, what is well heard, well learned, [253] well attended to, well remembered, suddenly vanishes from us. Good sir Moggallāna, it once happened that war broke out between the gods and the titans.398

[398:- The gods and titans (asura) are depicted in the Pali Canon as being perpetually in a state of war with each other. See especially the Sakkasaṁyutta (SN i.216–28).]

In that war the gods won and the titans were defeated. When I had won that war and returned from it as a conqueror, I had the Vejayanta Palace built. Good sir Moggallāna, the Vejayanta Palace has a hundred towers, and each tower has seven hundred upper chambers, and each upper chamber has seven nymphs, and each nymph has seven maids. Would you like to see the loveliness of the Vejayanta Palace, good sir Moggallāna?”

The venerable Mahā Moggallāna consented in silence.

§9. Then Sakka, ruler of gods, and the divine King Vessavaṇa399 went to the Vejayanta Palace, giving precedence to the venerable Mahā Moggallāna. When the maids of Sakka saw the venerable Mahā Moggallāna coming in the distance, they were embarrassed and ashamed and they went each into their own rooms. Just as a daughter-in-law is embarrassed and ashamed on seeing her father-inlaw, so too, when the maids of Sakka saw the venerable Mahā Moggallāna coming, they were embarrassed and ashamed and they went each into their own rooms.

[399:-One of the Four Great Kings, the ruler of the yakkhas, his kingdom being in the north.]

§ 10. Then Sakka, ruler of gods, and the divine King Vessavaṇa had the venerable Mahā Moggallāna walk all over and explore the Vejayanta Palace:
“See, good sir Moggallāna, this loveliness of the Vejayanta Palace! See, good sir Moggallāna, this loveliness of the Vejayanta Palace!”
“It does the venerable Kosiya credit as one who has formerly made merit; and whenever human beings see anything lovely, they say: ‘Sirs, it does credit to the gods of the Thirty-three!’ It does the venerable Kosiya credit as one who has formerly made merit.”

§11.Then the venerable Mahā Moggallāna considered thus: “This spirit is living much too negligently. What if I stirred up a sense of urgency in him?”
Then the venerable Mahā Moggallāna performed such a feat of supernormal power that with his toe he made the Vejayanta Palace shake and quake and tremble.400 [254]

[400:- MA: He did this by entering into meditation on the water-kasina and then resolving: “Let the foundation of the palace be like water.”]

Sakka and the divine King Vessavaṇa and the gods of the Thirty-three were filled with wonder and amazement, and they said:
“Sirs, it is wonderful, it is marvellous, what power and might the recluse has, that with his toe he makes the heavenly abode shake and quake and tremble!”

§ 12.When the venerable Mahā Moggallāna knew that Sakka, ruler of the gods, was stirred to a sense of urgency with his hair standing on end, he asked him:
“Kosiya, how did the Blessed One state to you in brief deliverance in the destruction of craving? It would be good if we might also get to hear that statement.”
“Good sir Moggallāna, I went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, I stood at one side and said: ‘Venerable sir,…[as in §2]…of gods and humans?’

When this was said, good sir Moggallāna, the Blessed One told me:
‘Here, ruler of gods,… [as in §3]…of gods and humans.’ That is how the Blessed One stated to me in brief deliverance in the destruction of craving, good sir Moggallāna.”

§ 13.Then the venerable Mahā Moggallāna delighted and rejoiced in the words of Sakka, ruler of gods. [255] Then, just as quickly as a strong man might extend his flexed arm or flex his extended arm, he vanished from among the gods of the Thirty-three and appeared in the Eastern Park in the Palace of Migāra’s Mother.

§14.Then, soon after the venerable Mahā Moggallāna had gone, the attendants of Sakka, ruler of gods, asked him: “Good sir, was that your teacher, the Blessed One?”—“No, good sirs, that was not my teacher, the Blessed One. That was one of my companions in the holy life, the venerable Mahā Moggallāna.”401

[401:- Sakka can refer to Ven. Mahā Moggallāna as a “companion in the holy life” because he himself had earlier attained to stream-entry (DN 21.2.10/ii.289) and was thus a noble disciple bound for the same deliverance that Mahā Moggallāna had already achieved.]

“Good sir, it is a gain for you that your companion in the holy life is so powerful and mighty. Oh, how much more so must be the Blessed One, your teacher!”

§15.Then the venerable Mahā Moggallāna went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, he sat down at one side and asked him:
“Venerable sir, does the Blessed One recall stating in brief—to a certain one of the renowned spirits with a great following—deliverance in the destruction of craving?”
“I do recall doing so, Moggallāna. Here Sakka, ruler of gods, came to me, and after paying homage to me, he stood at one side and asked: ‘Venerable sir, how in brief is a bhikkhu liberated in the destruction of craving, one who has reached the ultimate end, the ultimate security from bondage, the ultimate holy life, the ultimate goal, one who is foremost among gods and humans?’

When this was said, I told him: ‘Here, ruler of gods, a bhikkhu has heard that nothing is worth adhering to. When a bhikkhu has heard that nothing is worth adhering to, he directly knows everything; having directly known everything, he fully understands everything; having fully understood everything, whatever feeling he feels, whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant, he abides contemplating impermanence in those feelings, contemplating fading away, contemplating cessation, contemplating relinquishment. Contemplating thus, he does not cling to anything in the world. When he does not cling, he is not agitated. When he is not agitated, he personally attains Nibbāna. He understands:
“Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, [256] what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.”

Briefly, it is in this way, ruler of gods, that a bhikkhu is liberated in the destruction of craving…one who is foremost among gods and humans.’ That is how I recall stating in brief to Sakka, ruler of gods, deliverance in the destruction of craving.”

That is what the Blessed One said. The venerable Mahā Moggallāna was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

094 Ghoṭamukha Sutta

§ 1. THUS HAVE I HEARD.
On one occasion the venerable Udena was living at Benares in the Khemiya Mango Grove.

§2. Now on that occasion the brahmin Ghọamukha had arrived in Benares for some business or other. As he was [158] walking and wandering for exercise, he came to the Khemiya Mango Grove. At the time the venerable Udena was walking up and down in the open. Then the brahmin Ghoṭamukha went up to the venerable Udena and exchanged greetings with him.

When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, still walking up and down with the venerable Udena, he said this:
Worthy recluse, there is no wanderers’ life that accords with the Dhamma: so it seems to me here, and that may be because I have not seen such venerable ones as yourself or [because I have not seen] the Dhamma here.

§ 3. When this was said, the venerable Udena stepped down from the walk and went into his dwelling, where he sat down on a seat made ready.877 And Ghoṭamukha too stepped down from the walk and went into the dwelling, where he stood at one side. Then the venerable Udena said to him:
“There are seats, brahmin, sit down if you wish.”
“We did not sit down because we were waiting for Master Udena [to speak]. For how could one like myself presume to sit down on a seat without first being invited to do so?”

§4. Then the brahmin Ghoṭamukha took a low seat, sat down at one side, and said to the venerable Udena:
Worthy recluse, there is no wanderers’ life that accords with the Dhamma: so it seems to me here, and that may be because I have not seen such venerable ones as yourself or [because I have not seen] the Dhamma here.
“Brahmin, if you think any statement of mine is to be agreed with, then agree with it; if you think any statement of mine is to be argued against, then argue against it; and if you do not understand the meaning of any statement of mine, ask me to clarify it thus: ‘How is this, Master Udena? What is the meaning of this?’ In this way we can discuss this matter.”

“Master Udena, if I think any statement of Master Udena’s is to be agreed with, I shall agree with it; if I think any statement of his is to be argued against, I shall argue against it; and if I [159] do not understand the meaning of any statement of Master Udena’s, then I shall ask Master Udena to clarify it thus:
‘How is this Master Udena? What is the meaning of this?’ In this way let us discuss this matter.”

§5. “Brahmin, there are four kinds of persons to be found existing in the world.
What four?”…

  • Here a certain kind of person torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself.
  • Here a certain kind of person torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others.
  • Here a certain kind of person torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself, and he also torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others.
  • Here a certain kind of person does not torment himself or pursue the practice of torturing himself, and he does not torment others or pursue the practice of torturing others. Since he torments neither himself nor others, he is here and now hungerless, extinguished, and cooled, and he abides experiencing bliss, having himself become holy.545

[545:- Sukha patisamvedi brahmabhutena attana. MA: He experiences the bliss of the jhanas, paths, fruits, and jhaana. “Brahma” here should be understood in the sense of holy or excellent (seshtha).]

Which of these four kinds of persons satisfies your mind, brahmin?”
“The first three do not satisfy my mind, venerable sir, but the last one satisfies my mind.”

§6. “But, brahmin, why don’t the first three kinds of persons satisfy your mind?”

“Venerable sir, the kind of person who torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself, torments and tortures himself though he desires pleasure and recoils from pain; that is why this kind of person does not satisfy my mind.

And the kind of person who torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others, torments and tortures others who desire pleasure and recoil from pain; that is why this kind of person does not satisfy my mind.

And the kind of person who torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself, and who also torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others, torments and tortures himself and others, both of whom desire pleasure and recoil from pain; that is why this kind of person does not satisfy my mind. [342]

But the kind of person who does not torment himself or pursue the practice of torturing himself and who does not torment others or pursue the practice of torturing others; who, since he torments neither himself nor others, is here and now hungerless, extinguished, and cooled, and abides experiencing bliss, having himself become holy –
he does not torment and torture either himself or others, both of whom desire pleasure and recoil from pain.
That is why this kind of person satisfies my mind.

§7. “Brahmin, there are two kinds of assembly.
What two?

(i).Here a certain assembly lusts after jewels and earrings and seeks wives and children, men and women slaves, fields and land, gold and silver.

(ii) .But here a certain assembly does not lust after jewels and earrings, but having abandoned wives and children, men and women slaves, fields and land, gold and silver, has gone forth from the home life into homelessness.

Now there is this kind of person who does not torment himself or pursue the practice of torturing himself and who does not torment others or pursue the practice of torturing others; who, since he torments neither himself nor others, is here and now hungerless, extinguished, and cooled, and abides experiencing bliss, having himself become holy. In which of the two kinds of assembly do you usually see this person, brahmin—
in the assembly that lusts after jewels and earrings and seeks wives and children, men and women slaves, fields and land, gold and silver; or in the assembly that does not lust after jewels and earrings, but having abandoned wives and children…has gone forth from the home life into homelessness?”

[161] “I usually see this kind of person, Master Udena, in the assembly that does not lust after jewels and earrings, but having abandoned wives and children…has gone forth from the home life into homelessness.”

§ 8 . “But only just now, brahmin, we understood you to say: ‘Worthy recluse, there is no wanderers’ life that accords with the Dhamma: so it seems to me here, and that may be because I have not seen such venerable ones as yourself or [because I have not seen] the Dhamma here.’”

“Certainly, Master Udena, it was in order to learn that I spoke those words. There is a wanderers’ life that accords with the Dhamma; so it seems to me here, and may Master Udena remember me [to have spoken] thus.

It would be good if, out of compassion, Master Udena would expound to me in detail those four kinds of persons he mentioned in brief.”

§ 9. “Then, brahmin, listen and attend closely to what I shall say.”—
“Yes, sir,” the brahmin Ghoṭamukha replied.
The venerable Udena said this:

§10. “Brahmin , what kind of person torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself? 547

[547: :- This passage details the austerities undertaken by many of the Buddha’s ascetic contemporaries, as well as by the Bodhisatta himself during his period of striving for enlightenment. See MN 12.45

Here a certain person goes naked, rejecting conventions, licking his hands,
not coming when asked, not stopping when asked;
he does not accept food brought or food specially made or an invitation to a meal;
he receives nothing from a pot, from a bowl, across a threshold, across a stick, across a pestle,
from two eating together,
from a pregnant woman,
from a woman feeding an infant.
from a woman lying with a man,
from where food is advertised to be distributed, 
from where a dog is waiting,
from where flies are buzzing; 
he accepts no fish or meat,
he drinks no liquor, wine, or fermented brew.
He keeps to one house, to one morsel; he keeps to two houses to two morsels;…
he keeps to seven houses, to seven morsels.
He lives on one saucer-ful a day, on two saucer-fuls a day…on seven saucer-fuls a day.
He takes food once a day, [343] once every two days…once every seven days, and so on up to once every fortnight; he dwells pursuing the practice of taking food at stated intervals.
He is an eater of greens or millet or wild rice or hide-parings or moss or rice-bran or rice-scum or sesamum flour or grass or cowdung.
He lives on forest roots and fruits, he feeds on fallen fruits.

He clothes himself in hemp, in hemp mixed cloth, in shrouds, in refuse rags, in tree bark, in antelope hide, in strips of antelope hide, in kusa-grass fabric, in bark fabric, in wood-shavings fabric, in head-hair wool, in animal wool, in owls’ wings. He is one who pulls out hair and beard, pursuing the practice of pulling out hair and beard. He is one who stands continuously, rejecting seats.
He is one who squats continuously, devoted to maintaining the squatting position. He is one who uses a mattress of spikes; he makes a mattress of spikes his bed.
He dwells pursuing the practice of bathing in water three times daily including the evening. Thus in such a variety of ways he dwells pursuing the practice of tormenting and mortifying the body. This is called the kind of person who torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself.

§ 11. “What kind of person, brahamin, torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others?

Here a certain person is a butcher of sheep, a butcher of pigs, a fowler, a trapper of wild beasts, a hunter, a fisherman, a thief, an executioner, a prison warden, or one who foඅණthe kind of person who torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others.

§12 . “What kind of person, brahmin, torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself and also torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others?

Here some person is a head-anointed noble king or a well-to-do brahmin.548

[548:-This passage shows the practice of one who torments himself in the hope of gaining merit and then offers sacrifices that involve the slaughter of many animals and the oppression of his workers.]

Having had a new sacrificial temple built to the east of the city, and having shaved off his hair and beard, dressed himself in rough hide, and greased his body with ghee and oil, scratching his back with a deer’s horn, he enters the sacrificial temple together with his chief queen and his brahmin high priest. There he lies down on the bare ground with the grass on it.
The king lives on the milk in the first teat of a cow with a calf of the same colour [344] while the chief queen lives on the milk in the second teat and the brahmin high priest lives on the milk in the third teat; the milk in the fourth teat they pour onto the fire, and the calf lives on what is left. He says thus:

‘Let so many bulls be slaughtered for sacrifice, let so many bullocks be slaughtered for sacrifice, let so many heifers be slaughtered for sacrifice, let so many goats be slaughtered for sacrifice, let so many sheep be slaughtered for sacrifice, let so many trees be felled for the sacrificial posts, let so much grass be cut for the sacrificial grass.’

And then his slaves, messengers, and servants make preparations, weeping with tearful faces, being spurred on by threats of punishment and by fear. This is called the kind of person who torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself and who torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others.

§13 . “What kind of person, brahmin , does not torment himself or pursue the practice of torturing himself and does not torment others or pursue the practice of tormenting others – the one who, since he torments neither himself nor others, is here and now hunger-less, extinguished, and cooled, and abides experiencing bliss, having himself become holy?549

[549:- This is the arahant. To show clearly that he torments neither himself nor others, the venerable Udeni next undertakes to describe the path of practice by which he arrived at arahantship.]

§14 .. “Here, brahamin, a Tathagata appears in the world, accomplished, fully enlightened, perfect in true knowledge and conduct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, enlightened, blessed. He declares this world with its gods, its Maras, and its Brahmas, this generation with its recluses and brahmins, its princes and its people, which he has himself realised by direct knowledge. He teaches the Dhamma good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, and he reveals a holy life that is utterly perfect and pure.

§15. “A householder or householder’s son or one born in some other clan hears that Dhamma. On hearing the Dhamma he  acquires faith in the Tathagata. Possessing that faith, he considers thus:
Household life is crowded and dusty; life gone forth is wide open. It is not easy, while living in a home, to lead the holy life utterly perfect and pure as a polished shell. Suppose I shave off my hair and beard, put on the yellow robe, and go forth from the home life into homelessness.’

On a later occasion, abandoning a small or a large fortune, [345] abandoning a small or a large circle of relatives, he shaves off his hair and beard, puts on the yellow robe, and goes forth from the home life into homelessness.

§16. “Having thus gone forth and possessing the bhikkhus training and way of life,

  • abandoning the killing of living beings, he abstains from killing living beings; with rod and weapon laid aside, gentle and kindly, he abides compassionate to all living beings.
  • Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given; taking only what is given, expecting only what is given, by not stealing he abides in purity.
  • Abandoning incelibacy, he observes celibacy, living apart, abstaining from the vulgar practice of sexual intercourse. 
  • “Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech; he speaks truth, adheres to truth, is trustworthy and reliable, one who is no deceiver of the world.
  • Abandoning malicious speech, he abstains from malicious speech; he does not repeat elsewhere what he has heard here in order to divide [those people] from these, nor does he repeat to these people what he has heard elsewhere in order to divide [these people] from those; thus he is one who reunites those who are divided, a promoter of friendships, who enjoys concord, rejoices in concord, delights in concord, a speaker of words that promote concord.
  • Abandoning harsh speech, he abstains from harsh speech; he speaks such words as are gentle, pleasing to the ear, and loveable, as go to the heart, are courteous, desired by many and agreeable to many.
  • Abandoning gossip, he abstains from gossip; he speaks at the right time, speaks what is fact, speaks on what is good, speaks on the Dhamma and the Discipline; at the right time he speaks such words as are worth recording, reasonable, moderate, and beneficial. 
  • “He abstains from injuring seeds and plants. He practises eating only in one part of the day, abstaining from eating at night and outside the proper time.
  • He abstains from dancing, singing, music, and theatrical shows. He abstains from wearing garlands, smartening himself with scent, and embellishing himself with unguents.
  • He abstains from high and large couches.
  • He abstains from accepting gold and silver.
  • He abstains from accepting raw grain.
  • He abstains from accepting raw meat.
  • He abstains from accepting women and girls.
  • He abstains from accepting men and women slaves.
  • He abstains from accepting goats and sheep.
  • He abstains from accepting fowl and pigs.
  • He abstains from accepting elephants, cattle, horses, and mares.
  • He abstains from accepting fields and land.
  • He abstains from going on errands and running messages.
  • He abstains from buying and selling.
  • He abstains from false weights, false metals, and false measures. [346]
  • He abstains from cheating, deceiving, defrauding, and trickery.
  • He abstains from wounding, murdering, binding, brigandage, plunder, and violence.

§16. “He becomes content with robes to protect his body and with alms food to maintain his stomach, and wherever he goes he sets out taking only these with him. Just as a  bird, wherever it goes, flies with its wings as its only burden, so too, the bhikkhu becomes content with robes to protect his body and with almsfood to maintain his stomach, and wherever he goes he sets out taking only these with him. Possessing this aggregate of noble virtue, he experiences within himself a bliss that is blameless.

§17. “ Restraining

  • On seeing a form with the eye, he does not grasp at its signs and features. Since, if he left the eye faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief might invade him, he practises the way of its restraint, he guards the eye faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the eye faculty.
  • On hearing a sound with the ear…
  • On smelling an odour with the nose…
  • On tasting a flavour with the tongue…
  • On touching a tangible with the body…
  • On cognizing a mind-object with the mind, he does not grasp at its signs and features. Since, if he left the mind faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief might invade him, he practises the way of its restraint, he guards the mind faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the mind faculty. Possessing this noble restraint of the faculties, he experiences within himself a bliss that is unsullied.

§18 . “He becomes one who acts in full awareness when going forward and returning; who acts in full awareness when looking ahead and looking away; who acts in full awareness when flexing and extending his limbs; who acts in full awareness when wearing his robes and carrying his outer robe and bowl; who acts in full awareness when eating, drinking, consuming food, and tasting; who acts in full awareness when defecating and urinating; who acts in full awareness when walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, and keeping silent.

§19. “Possessing this aggregate of noble virtue, and this noble restraint of the faculties, and possessing this noble mindfulness and full awareness, he resorts to a secluded resting place: the forest, the root of a tree, a mountain, a ravine, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a jungle thicket, an open space, a heap of straw.

§ 20. “On returning from his alms-round, after his meal he sits down, folding his legs crosswise, setting his body erect, and establishing mindfulness before him. [347]

  • Abandoning covetousness for the world, he abides with a mind free from  covetousness; he purifies his mind from covetousness.
  • Abandoning ill will and hatred, he abides with a mind free from ill will, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings; he purifies his mind from ill will and hatred.
  • Abandoning sloth and torpor, he abides free from sloth and torpor, percipient of light, mindful and fully aware; he purifies his mind from sloth and torpor.
  • Abandoning restlessness and remorse, he abides unagitated with a mind inwardly peaceful; he purifies his mind from restlessness and remorse.
  • Abandoning doubt, he abides having gone beyond doubt, unperplexed about wholesome states; he purifies his mind from doubt.

§ 21. “Having thus abandoned these five hindrances, imperfections of the mind that weaken wisdom, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, he enters upon and abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion.

§ 22. “Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, he enters upon and abides in the second jhana, which has selfconfidence and singleness of mind without applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of concentration.

§ 23. “Again, with the fading away as well of rapture, he abides in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling pleasure with the body, he enters upon and abides in the third jhana, on account of which noble ones announce: ‘He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.’

§ 24. “Again, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, he enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana, which has neither-painnor- pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity.

§ 25. “When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the recollection of past lives. He recollects his manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two births, three births, four births, five births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty births, a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births, many aeons of world-contraction, many aeons of worldexpansion, many aeons of world-contraction and expansion:
There I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared elsewhere; and there too I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, [348] such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared here.’
Thus with their aspects and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives.

§ 26. “When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the passing away and reappearance of beings.

With the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate. He understands how beings pass on according to their actions thus:

‘These worthy beings who were ill-conducted in body, speech, and mind, revilers of noble ones, wrong in their views, giving effect to wrong view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reappeared in a state of deprivation, in a bad destination, in perdition, even in hell;
but these worthy beings who were well conducted in body, speech, and mind, not revilers of noble ones, right in their views, giving effect to right view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reappeared in a good destination, even in the heavenly world.’

Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and he understands how beings pass on according to their actions.

§ 27. “When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the destruction of the taints. He understands as it actually is:
‘This is suffering’; he understands as it actually is:
‘This is the origin of suffering’; he understands as it actually is:
‘This is the cessation of suffering’; he understands as it actually is:
‘This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.’ He understands as it actually is: ‘These are the taints’; he understands as it actually is:
‘This is the origin of the taints’; he understands as it actually is:
‘This is the cessation of the taints’; he understands as it actually is:
‘This is the way leading to the cessation of the taints.’

§ 28. “When he knows and sees thus, his mind is liberated from the taint of sensual desire, from the taint of being, and from the taint of ignorance. When it is liberated there comes the knowledge:
‘It is liberated.’ He understands: ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.’

§ 29. “When he knows and sees thus, his mind is liberated from the taint of sensual desire, from the taint of being, and from the taint of ignorance. When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: ‘It is liberated.’ He understands: ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.’

§ 30. “This, brahmin , is called the kind of person who does not torment himself or pursue the practice of torturing himself and who does not torment others or pursue the practice of torturing others [349]—the one who, since he torments neither himself nor others, is here and now hungerless, extinguished, and cooled, and abides experiencing bliss, having himself become holy.”

§ 31. When this was said, the brahmin Ghoṭamukha said to the venerable Udena: “Magnificent, Master Udena! Magnificent, Master Udena! Master Udena has made the Dhamma clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overthrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. I go to Master Udena for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. From today let Master Udena remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life.”

§ 32. “Do not go to me for refuge, brahmin. Go for refuge to that same Blessed One to whom I have gone for refuge.”
“Where is he living now, that Master Gotama, accomplished and fully enlightened, Master Udena?”
“That Blessed One, accomplished and fully enlightened, has attained final Nibbāna, brahmin.”
“If we heard that Master Gotama was within ten leagues, we would go ten leagues in order to see that Master Gotama, accomplished and fully enlightened.
If we heard that Master Gotama was within twenty leagues…thirty leagues… forty leagues…fifty leagues…a hundred leagues, [163] we would go a hundred leagues in order to see that Master Gotama, accomplished and fully enlightened.

But since that Master Gotama has attained to final Nibbāna, we go to that Master Gotama for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. From today let Master Udena remember me as a lay follower who has gone for refuge for life.

§ 33. “Now, Master Udena, the king of Anga gives me a daily donation. Let me give Master Udena one regular donation from that.”
“What kind of regular daily donation does the king of Anga give you, brahmin?”
“Five hundred kahāpaṇas, Master Udena.”878
“It is not allowable for us to accept gold and silver, brahmin.”
“If it is not allowable for Master Udena, I will have a monastery built for Master Udena.”
“If you desire to have a monastery built for me, brahmin, have an assembly hall built for the Sangha at Pāṭaliputta.”879
“I am still more satisfied and pleased that Master Udena suggests that I give a gift to the Sangha. So with this regular donation and another regular donation, I shall have an assembly hall built for the Sangha at Pāṭaliputta.”

Then with that regular donation [which he offered to Master Udena] and another regular donation [added to it], the brahmin Ghoṭamukha had an assembly hall built for the Sangha at Pāṭaliputta. And that is now known as the Ghoṭamukhī.

[878: The kahāpaṇa was the principal monetary unit of the time.]

[879: During the Buddha’s last days, this city was still a small town known as Pāṭaligāma. At DN 16.1.28/iii.87, the Buddha predicts its future greatness. It eventually became the capital of Magadha. Its present-day descendent is the city of Patna, capital of the state of Bihar.]