138 EXPOSITION OF THE SUMMARY

MN 03-04-08 Uddesa Vibhanga Sutta

Sutta Exposition by Venerable Bhikku Bodhi

§  1. THUS HAVE I HEARD..
On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Sāvatthī in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park. There the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.”
—“Venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:

Sutta Exposition by Ven Ajahn Brahmali

§  2.“Bhikkhus, I shall teach you a summary and an exposition. Listen and attend closely to what I shall say.”—“Yes, venerable sir,” the bhikkhus replied.
The Blessed One said this:

§  3. “Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu should examine things in such a way that while he is examining them, his consciousness is not distracted and scattered externally nor stuck internally, and by not clinging he does not become agitated. If his consciousness is not distracted and scattered externally nor stuck internally, and if by not clinging he does not become agitated, then for him there is no origination of suffering—of birth, ageing, and death in the future.”  

§  4. That is what the Blessed One said. Having said this, the Sublime One rose from his seat and went into his dwelling.1249

[1249:- It is strange that the Buddha, having announced that he will teach a summary and an exposition, should recite only the summary and leave without giving the exposition. Although elsewhere the Buddha departs suddenly after making an enigmatic statement (e.g., in MN 18) , on those occasions he had not previously declared his intention to give an exposition. MA offers no explanation.]

§  5. Then, soon after the Blessed One had gone, the bhikkhus considered:
“Now, friends, the Blessed One has risen from his seat and gone into his dwelling after giving a summary in brief without expounding the detailed meaning. Now who will expound this in detail?”

Then they considered:
“The venerable Mahā Kaccāna is praised by the Teacher and esteemed by his wise companions in the holy life. He is capable of expounding the detailed meaning. Suppose we went to him and asked him the meaning of this.”

§  6. Then the bhikkhus went to the venerable Mahā Kaccāna and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, they sat down to one side and they told him what had taken place, adding: “Let the venerable Mahā Kaccāna expound it to us.”

§  7. [The venerable Mahā Kaccāna replied:]
“Friends, it is as though a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood, [195] thought that heartwood should be sought for among the branches and leaves of a great tree standing possessed of heartwood, after he had passed over the root and the trunk.

And so it is with you, venerable sirs, that you think that I should be asked about the meaning of this, after you passed the Blessed One by when you were face to face with the Teacher. For knowing, the Blessed One knows; seeing, he sees; he is vision, he is knowledge, he is the Dhamma, he is the holy one; he is the sayer, the proclaimer, the elucidator of meaning, the giver of the Deathless, the lord of the Dhamma, the Tathāgata. That was the time when you should have asked the Blessed One the meaning. As he told you, so you should have remembered it.”

§  8. “Surely, friend Kaccāna, knowing, the Blessed One knows; seeing, he sees; he is vision…the Tathāgata. That was the time when we should have asked the Blessed One the meaning. As he told us, so we should have remembered it. Yet the venerable Mahā Kaccāna is praised by the Teacher and esteemed by his wise companions in the holy life. The venerable Mahā Kaccāna is capable of expounding the detailed meaning of this summary given in brief by the Blessed One without expounding the detailed meaning. Let the venerable Mahā Kaccāna expound it without finding it troublesome.”

§  9“Then listen, friends, and attend closely to what I shall say.”
“Yes, friend,” the bhikkhus replied.
The venerable Mahā Kaccāna said this:



§  10.“How, friends, is consciousness called ‘distracted and scattered externally’?1250

Here, when a bhikkhu has seen a form with the eye, if his consciousness follows after the sign of form, is tied and shackled by gratification in the sign of form,1251 is fettered by the fetter of gratification in the sign of form, then his consciousness is called ‘distracted and scattered externally.’
“When he has heard a sound with the ear…
When he has smelt an odour with the nose…
When he has tasted a flavour with the tongue…
When he has touched a tangible with the body…
When he has cognized a mind-object with the mind, if his consciousness follows after the sign of the mind-object, is tied and shackled by gratification in the sign of the mind-object, is fettered by the fetter of gratification in the sign of the mind-object, then his consciousness is called ‘distracted and scattered externally.’

[1250:- MA: Consciousness is “distracted and scattered externally,” i.e., among external objects, when it occurs by way of attachment towards an external object.]

[1251 MṬ: The form itself is called the sign of form (rūpanimitta) in that it is the cause for the arising of defilements. One “follows after it” by way of lust.]

§  11 “And how, friends, is consciousness called ‘not distracted and scattered externally’?

Here, when a bhikkhu has seen a form with the eye, if his consciousness does not follow after the sign of form, is not tied and shackled by gratification in the sign of form, is not fettered by the fetter of gratification in the sign of form, then his consciousness is called ‘not distracted and scattered externally.’ [226]

“When he has heard a sound with the ear…
When he has smelt an odour with the nose…
When he has tasted a flavour with the tongue…
When he has touched a tangible with the body…
When he has cognized a mind-object with the mind, if his consciousness does not follow after the sign of the mind-object, is not tied and shackled by gratification in the sign of the mind object, is not fettered by the fetter of gratification in the sign of the mind-object,
then his consciousness is called ‘not distracted and scattered externally.’

§  12.“And how, friends, is the mind called ‘stuck internally’? 1252

Here, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. If his consciousness follows after the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion, is tied and shackled by gratification in the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion, then his mind is called ‘stuck internally.’

[1252:- MA: The mind is “stuck internally” by way of attachment to an internal object. The text of the sutta itself makes the shift from viññāṇa in the Buddha’s summary to citta in Mahā Kaccāna’s exposition.]

§  13, “Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second jhāna, which has self-confidence and singleness of mind without applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of concentration. If his consciousness follows after the rapture and pleasure born of concentration…then his mind is called ‘stuck internally.’

§  14 “Again, with the fading away as well of rapture, a bhikkhu abides in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling pleasure with the body, he enters upon and abides in the third jhāna, on account of which noble ones announce: ‘He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.’ If his consciousness follows after the equanimity…then his mind is called ‘stuck internally.’

§  15.“Again, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jhāna, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. If his consciousness follows after the neither-pain-nor-pleasure, is tied and shackled by gratification in the neither-pain-nor-pleasure, is fettered by the fetter of gratification in the neither-pain-nor-pleasure, then his mind is called ‘stuck internally.’ That is how the mind is called ‘stuck internally.’ [227]

§  16 . “And how, friends, is the mind called ‘not stuck internally’?

Here, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhāna…If his consciousness does not follow after the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion, is not tied and shackled by gratification in the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion, is not fettered by the fetter of gratification in the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion, then his mind is called ‘not stuck internally.’

§ 17. “Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second jhāna…If his consciousness does not follow after the rapture and pleasure born of concentration…then his mind is called ‘not stuck internally.’

§ 18. “Again, with the fading away as well of rapture, a bhikkhu… enters upon and abides in the third jhāna…If his consciousness does not follow after the equanimity…then his mind is called ‘not stuck internally.’

§  19 . “Again, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain…a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jhāna…If his consciousness does not follow after the neither-pain-nor-pleasure, is not tied and shackled by gratification in the neither-pain- nor-pleasure, is not fettered by the fetter of gratification in the neither-pain nor- pleasure, then his mind is called ‘not stuck internally.’ That is how the mind is called ‘not stuck internally.’

§ 20. “How, friends, is there agitation due to clinging?1253

[1253:- All known editions of the Pali text of MN 138 read here anupādā paritassanā, literally “agitation due to non-clinging,” which obviously contradicts what the Buddha consistently teaches: that agitation arises from clinging, and ceases with the removal of clinging. However, this reading apparently predates the commentaries, for MA accepts anupādā as correct and offers the following explanation: “In what sense is there agitation due to nonclinging?

Through the non-existence of anything to cling to. For if there existed any formation that were permanent, stable, a self, or the belonging of a self, it would be possible to cling to it. Then this agitation would be agitation due to clinging (something to cling to). But because there is no formation that can be clung to thus, then even though material form, etc., are clung to with the idea ‘material form is self,’ etc., they are not clung to (in the way they are conceived).

Thus, what is here called ‘agitation due to non-clinging’ is in meaning agitation due to clinging by way of views.” Ñm had followed this reading, and on the basis of MA’s explanation, had rendered the phrase “anguish [agitation] due to not finding anything to cling to.” He did not discuss the problem in his notes. A sutta in the Saṁyutta Nikāya (SN 22:7/iii, 16) is virtually identical with this passage of MN 138, except that here it reads, as we should expect, upādā paritassanā, “agitation due to clinging.” From the Saṁyutta text we may safely infer that the Majjhima reading is an ancient error that should be discounted. My rendering here is based on the reading of SN 22:7. Horner too follows the latter text in MLS.]

Here an untaught ordinary person who has no regard for noble ones and is unskilled and undisciplined in their Dhamma, who has no regard for true men and is unskilled and undisciplined in their Dhamma, regards material form as self, or self as possessed of material form, or material form as in self, or self as in material form. That material form of his changes and becomes otherwise. With the change and becoming otherwise of that material form, his consciousness is preoccupied with the change of material form. Agitated mental states born of preoccupation with the change of material form arise together1254 and remain obsessing his mind. Because his mind is obsessed, he is anxious, distressed, and concerned, and due to clinging he becomes agitated.1255 [228]

[1254:- MA explains the unusual phrase paritassanā dhammasamuppādā as “the agitation of craving and the arising of (other) unwholesome states.”]

[1255 The agitation thus results from the lack of any permanent essence in things that could provide a refuge from the suffering precipitated by their change and instability.

] “He regards feeling as self…
He regards perception as self…
He regards formations as self…
He regards consciousness as self, or self as possessed of consciousness, or consciousness as in self, or self as in consciousness. That consciousness of his changes and becomes otherwise. With the change and becoming otherwise of that consciousness, his consciousness is preoccupied with the change of consciousness.

Agitated states of mind born of preoccupation with the change of
consciousness arise together and remain obsessing his mind. Because his mind is obsessed, he is anxious, distressed, and concerned, and due to clinging he becomes agitated. That is how there is agitation due to clinging.

§  21 . “And how, friends, is there non-agitation due to non-clinging? 1256

Here a well-taught noble disciple who has regard for noble ones and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma, who has regard for true men and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma,
does not regard material form as self, or self as possessed of material form, or material form as in self, or self as in material form. That material form of his changes and becomes otherwise. With the change and becoming otherwise of that material form, his consciousness is not preoccupied with the change of material form.

Agitated mental states born of preoccupation with the change of material form do not arise together and remain obsessing his mind. Because his mind is not obsessed, he is not anxious, distressed, and concerned, and due to non-clinging he does not become agitated.

[1256:-This phrase is identical in both the Majjhima and Saṁyutta Ch 7 , Stts 7 and 8 versions.]

“He does not regard feeling as self…
He does not regard perception as self…
He does not regard formations as self…
He does not regard consciousness as self, or self as possessed of consciousness, or consciousness as in self, or self as in consciousness. That consciousness of his changes and becomes otherwise. With the change and becoming otherwise of that consciousness, his consciousness is not preoccupied with the change of consciousness.

Agitated mental states born of preoccupation with the change of consciousness do not arise together and remain obsessing his mind. Because his mind is not obsessed, he is not anxious, distressed, and concerned, and due to non-clinging he does not become agitated.
That is how there is non-agitation due to non-clinging.

§ 22 . “Friends, when the Blessed One rose from his seat and went into his dwelling after giving a summary in brief without expounding the detailed meaning, that is: ‘Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu should examine things in such a way that while he is examining them, his consciousness is not distracted and scattered externally nor stuck internally, and by not clinging he does not become agitated.

If his consciousness is not distracted and scattered externally nor stuck internally, and if by not clinging he does not become agitated, then for him there is no origination of suffering—of birth, ageing, and death in the future,’ I understand the detailed meaning of this summary to be thus. [229] Now, friends, if you wish, go to the Blessed One and ask him about the meaning of this. As the Blessed One explains it to you, so you should remember it.”

§ 23 .  Then the bhikkhus, having delighted and rejoiced in the venerable Mahā Kaccāna’s words, rose from their seats and went to the Blessed One. After paying homage to him, they sat down at one side and told the Blessed One all that had taken place after he had left, adding: “Then, venerable sir, we went to the venerable Mahā Kaccāna and asked him about the meaning. The venerable Mahā Kaccāna expounded the meaning to us with these terms, statements, and
phrases.”

§ 24. “Mahā Kaccāna is wise, bhikkhus, Mahā Kaccāna has great wisdom. If you had asked me the meaning of this, I would have explained it to you in the same way that Mahā Kaccāna has explained it. Such is its meaning, and so you should remember it.”

That is what the Blessed One said.
The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

134 Lomasangika- A Single Excellent Night

MN 03-04-04 Lomasakangiya bhaddekaratta Sutta

§ 1 THUS HAVE I HEARD.
On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Sāvatthī in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park. Now on that occasion the venerable Lomasakangiya was living in the Sakyan country at Kapilavatthu in Nigrodha’s Park.1221

[1221:- According to the commentary to Thag, Ven. Lomasakangiya had been a bhikkhu in the time of the Buddha Kassapa. After the Buddha Kassapa had taught the Bhaddekaratta Sutta, a certain bhikkhu spoke about it to Lomasakangiya. Unable to understand it, he exclaimed: “In the future, may I be able to teach you this sutta!” The other answered: “May I ask you about it!” In the present age Lomasakangiya was born into a Sakyan family at Kapilavatthu, while the other bhikkhu became the god Candana.]

§ 2 Then, when the night was well advanced, Candana, a young deity of beautiful appearance who illuminated the whole of Nigrodha’s Park, approached the venerable Lomasakangiya. Standing at one side, Candana the young deity said to him:

“Bhikkhu, do you remember the summary and exposition of
One Who Has Had a Single Excellent Night’?” [200]
“Friend, I do not remember the summary and exposition of ‘One Who Has Had a Single Excellent Night.’

But, friend, do you remember the summary and exposition of ‘One Who Has Had a Single Excellent Night’?”
“Bhikkhu, I too do not remember the summary and exposition of ‘One Who Has Had a Single Excellent Night.’
But, bhikkhu, do you remember the stanza of ‘One Who Has Had a Single Excellent Night’?”
“Friend, I do not remember the stanza of ‘One Who Has Had a Single Excellent Night.’ But, friend, do you remember the stanza of ‘One Who Has Had a Single Excellent Night’?”

“Bhikkhu, I remember the stanza of ‘One Who Has Had a Single Excellent Night.’”
“But, friend, in what way do you remember the stanza of ‘One Who Has Had a Single Excellent Night’?”

“Bhikkhu, once the Blessed One was living among the gods of the heaven of the Thirty-three, on the Red Marble Stone at the root of the Pāricchattaka tree.1222

[1222:- MA explains that this occurred in the seventh year after the Buddha’s enlightenment, at the time when he spent the three months of the rainy season in the heaven of the Thirty-three teaching the Abhidhamma to the gods who had assembled from ten thousand world-systems.]

There the Blessed One recited the summary and exposition of ‘One Who Has Had a Single Excellent Night’ to the gods of the heaven of the Thirtythree:

§ 3. ‘Let not a person revive the past
Or on the future build his hopes;
For the past has been left behind
And the future has not been reached.

Instead with insight let him see
Each presently arisen state;
Let him know that and be sure of it,
Invincibly, unshakeably.

Today the effort must be made;
Tomorrow Death may come, who knows?
No bargain with Mortality
Can keep him and his hordes away.

But one who dwells thus ardently,
Relentlessly, by day, by night—
It is he, the Peaceful Sage has said,
Who has had a single excellent night.’

§ 4. “Bhikkhu, I remember the stanza of ‘One Who Has Had a Single Excellent Night’ thus.

Bhikkhu, learn the summary and exposition of ‘One Who Has Had a Single Excellent Night.’ Bhikkhu, master the summary and exposition of ‘One Who Has Had A Single Excellent Night.’ Bhikkhu, remember the summary and exposition of ‘One Who Has Had a Single Excellent Night.’ Bhikkhu, the summary and exposition of ‘One Who Has Had a Single Excellent Night’ is beneficial, it belongs to the fundamentals of the holy life.”
That is what was said by Candana the young deity, who thereupon vanished at once.

§ 5. Then, when the night was over, the venerable Lomasakangiya set his resting place in order, and taking his bowl and outer robe, set out to wander by stages to Sāvatthī. He [201] at length arrived at Sāvatthī, and went to the Blessed One in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park. After paying homage to him, he sat down at one side, told the Blessed One all that had occurred, and said: “It would be good, venerable sir, if the Blessed One would teach me the summary and exposition of ‘One Who Has Had a Single Excellent Night.’”

§ 6. “Bhikkhu, do you know that young deity?”
“No, venerable sir.”
“Bhikkhu, that young deity is named Candana. He heeds the Dhamma, gives it attention, engages it with all his mind, hears it with eager ears. So, bhikkhu, listen and attend closely to what I shall say.”
“Yes, venerable sir,” the venerable Lomasakangiya replied to the Blessed One.
The Blessed One said this:

§7 .  “Let not a person revive the past Or on the future build his hopes;1211


[1211:- More literally the first two lines would be translated:
Let not a person run back to the past
or live in expectation of the future.”
The meaning will be elucidated in the expository passage of the sutta]

For the past has been left behind
And the future has not been reached.
Instead with insight let him see
Each presently arisen state;1212

Let him know that and be sure of it,
Invincibly, unshakeably.1213


[1212: MA: He should Contemplate each presently arisen state, just where it has arisen, with insight into its impermanence, etc.]

[1213:- Asamhiramh asankuppaam  .
MA explains that this is said for the purpose of showing insight and repeated insight; for
insight is “invincible, unshakeable” because it is not vanquished or shaken by lust and other defilements. Elsewhere the expression “the invincible, the unshakeable” is used as a description of Nibbana (e.g., Sn v.1149) or of the liberated mind (e.g., Thag v.649), but here it seems to refer to a stage in the development of insight. The recurrence of the verb form samhirati in §8 and §9 suggests that the intended meaning is contemplation of the present moment without being misled into the adoption of a personality view.]

Today the effort must be made;
Tomorrow Death may come, who knows?
No bargain with Mortality
Can keep him and his hordes away,
But one who dwells thus ardently,
Relentlessly, by day, by night –
It is he, the Peaceful Sage has said,1214
Who has one fortunate attachment. [188]

§ 8 . “How, bhikkhus, does one revive the past?
Thinking, ‘I had such material form in the past,’ one finds delight in that.1215
Thinking, ‘I had such feeling in the past,’…
‘I had such perception in the past,’…
‘I had such formations in the past,’…
‘I had such consciousness in the past  one finds delight in that.
That is how one revives the past.

[1215:-MA: One “finds delight” by bringing to bear upon the past either craving or a view associated with craving. It should be noted that it is not the mere recollection of the past through memory that causes bondage, but the reliving of past experiences with thoughts of craving. In this respect the Buddha’s teaching differs significantly from that of Krishnamurti, who seems to regard memory itself as the villain behind the scene.]

§ 9. . “And how, bhikkhus, does one not revive the past?

Thinking,
‘I had such material form in the past,’
one does not find delight in that.1216
Thinking, ‘I had such feeling in the past…!
had such perception in the past…
I had such formations in the past,’…
I had such consciousness in the past one does not find delight in that.
That is how one does not revive the past.

[1216:- Perhaps this sentence, and all the parallel sentences to follow, should be translated: “One does not find delight there thinking, ‘I had such material form in the past.”‘
The translation as it stands suggests that such thoughts arise but without the accompaniment of delight, while the alternative proposed here suggests that these thoughts do not arise at all. The same alternative construction can also be applied to thoughts about the future in §7. The Pali can admit either rendering]

§ 10. “And how, bhikkhus, does one build up hope upon the future?

Thinking,
‘I may have such material form in the future one does not find delight in that.
Thinking,
I may have such feeling in the future,’…
‘I may have such perception in the future,’…
I may have such formations in the future…
I may have such consciousness in the future one does not find delight
in that.
That is how one does not build up hope upon the future.

§ 11. “And how, bhikkhus, is one vanquished in regard to presently arisen states?1218

[1218 The verb here and in the next paragraph, samhirati, refers back to the line in the verse, “invincibly, unshakeably.”
MA glosses: “One is dragged in by craving and views because of the lack of insight.”]

Here, bhikkhus, an untaught ordinary person, who has no regard for noble ones and is unskilled and undisciplined in their Dhamma, who has no regard for true men and is unskilled and undisciplined in their Dhamma, 

regards material form as self,
or self as possessed of material form,
or material form as in self,
or self as in material form.

He regards feeling as self…
perception as self…
formations as self [189]…
consciousness as self, or
self as possessed of consciousness, or
consciousness as in self,

or self as in consciousness.

That is how one is vanquished in regard to presently arisen states.

§ 12. “And how, bhikkhus, is one invincible in regard to presently arisen states?

Here, bhikkhus, a well-taught noble disciple, who has regard for noble ones and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma, who has regard for true men and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma,

does not regard material form as self or
self as possessed of material form, or
material form as in self or
self as in material form.

He does not regard feeling as self…
perception as self…
formations as self…
consciousness as self,
or self as possessed of consciousness,
or consciousness as in self,
or self as in consciousness.

That is how one is invincible in regard to presently arisen states.

§ 13. “Let not a person revive the past…
Who has one fortunate attachment?


That is what the Blessed One said. The Venerable Lomasakangiya was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

132 Ananda and Fortunate Night

MN 03-04-02 Ānanda bhaddekaratta Sutta

Listen to the Sutta Reading by Ven Bhikku Chandana

§1.THUS HAVE I HEARD.
On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Sāvatthī in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

§2. Now on that occasion the venerable Ānanda was instructing, urging, arousing, and gladdening [190] the bhikkhus with talk on the Dhamma in the assembly hall. He was reciting the summary and exposition of “One Who Has Had a Single Excellent Night.”

Then, in the evening, the Blessed One rose from meditation and went to the assembly hall. He sat down on a seat made ready and asked the bhikkhus:
“Bhikkhus, who has been instructing, urging, rousing, and gladdening the bhikkhus with talk on the Dhamma in the assembly hall?

Who has been reciting the summary and exposition of
One Who Has Had a Single Excellent Night’?”
“It was the venerable Ānanda, venerable sir.”

Then the Blessed One asked the venerable Ānanda:
“Ānanda, how were you instructing, urging, rousing, and gladdening the bhikkhus with talk on the Dhamma, and reciting the summary and exposition of ‘One Who Has Had a Single Excellent Night’?”
§3–§10. “I was doing so thus, venerable sir: [191]


‘Let not a person revive the past or on the future build his hopes;1211

[1211:- More literally the first two lines would be translated:

Let not a person rඑවිවේ n back to the past
or live in expectation of the future.”

The meaning will be elucidated in the expository passage of the sutta]

And the future has not been reached.
Instead with insight let him see
Each presently arisen state;1212

Let him know that and be sure of it,
Invincibly, unshakeably.1213

[1212: MA: He should Contemplate each presently arisen state, just where it has arisen, with insight into its impermanence, etc.]

[1213:- Asamhiramh asankuppaam  .
MA explains that this is said for the purpose of showing insight and repeated insight; for
 insight is “invincible, unshakeable” because it is not vanquished or shaken by lust and other defilements. Elsewhere the expression “the invincible, the unshakeable” is used as a description of Nibbana (e.g., Sn v.1149) or of the liberated mind (e.g., Thag v.649), but here it seems to refer to a stage in the development of insight. The recurrence of the verb form samhirati in §8 and §9 suggests that the intended meaning is contemplation of the present moment without being misled into the adoption of a personality view.]

Today the effort must be made;
Tomorrow Death may come, who knows?
No bargain with Mortality
Can keep him and his hordes away,

But one who dwells thus ardently,
Relentlessly, by day, by night –
It is he, the Peaceful Sage has said,1214
Who has one fortunate attachment. [188]

[1214:- The “Peaceful Sage” (santo muni) is the Buddha.]

§ 4. “How, bhikkhus, does one revive the past?
Thinking, ‘I had such material form in the past,’ one finds delight in that.1215
Thinking, ‘I had such feeling in the past,’…
‘I had such perception in the past,’…
‘I had such formations in the past,’…
‘I had such consciousness in the past  one finds delight in that.
That is how one revives the past.

[1215:-MA: One “finds delight” by bringing to bear upon the past either craving or a view associated with craving. It should be noted that it is not the mere recollection of the past through memory that causes bondage, but the reliving of past experiences with thoughts of craving. In this respect the Buddha’s teaching differs significantly from that of Krishnamurti, who seems to regard memory itself as the villain behind the scene.]

§5. “And how, bhikkhus, does one not revive the past?

Thinking,
‘I had such material form in the past,’
one does not find delight in that.1216
Thinking, ‘I had such feeling in the past…!
had such perception in the past…
I had such formations in the past,’…
I had such consciousness in the past one does not find delight in that.
That is how one does not revive the past.

[1216:- Perhaps this sentence, and all the parallel sentences to follow, should be translated: “One does not find delight there thinking, ‘I had such material form in the past.”‘
The translation as it stands suggests that such thoughts arise but without the accompaniment of delight, while the alternative proposed here suggests that these thoughts do not arise at all. The same alternative construction can also be applied to thoughts about the future in §7. The Pali can admit either rendering]

§ 6. “And how, bhikkhus, does one build up hope upon the future?

Thinking,
‘I may have such material form in the future1217
one finds delight in that. Thinking, ‘I may have such feeling in the future,’…
‘I may have such perception in the future…
I may have such formations in the future…
‘I may have such consciousness in the future,’
one finds delight in that.
That is how one builds up hope upon the future.

[1217:- Perhaps this phrase should be taken as an exclamation:
“May I have such material form in the future!”]

§ 7. “And how, bhikkhus, does one not build up hope upon the future?

Thinking,
‘I may have such material form in the future one does not find delight in that.
Thinking,
I may have such feeling in the future,’…
‘I may have such perception in the future,’…
I may have such formations in the future…
I may have such consciousness in the future one does not find delight in that.
That is how one does not build up hope upon the future.

§ 8. “And how, bhikkhus, is one vanquished in regard to presently arisen states?1218

[1218 The verb here and in the next paragraph, samhirati, refers back to the line in the verse, “invincibly, unshakeably.”
MA glosses: “One is dragged in by craving and views because of the lack of insight.”]

Here, bhikkhus, an untaught ordinary person, who has no regard for noble ones and is unskilled and undisciplined in their Dhamma, who has no regard for true men and is unskilled and undisciplined in their Dhamma, 

regards material form as self,
or self as possessed of material form,
or material form as in self,
or self as in material form.

He regards feeling as self…
perception as self…
formations as self [189]…
consciousness as self, or
self as possessed of consciousness, or
consciousness as in self,
or self as in consciousness.

That is how one is vanquished in regard to presently arisen states.

§ 9. “And how, bhikkhus, is one invincible in regard to presently arisen states?

Here, bhikkhus, a well-taught noble disciple, who has regard for noble ones and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma, who has regard for true men and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma,

does not regard material form as self or
self as possessed of material form, or
material form as in self or
self as in material form.

He does not regard feeling as self…
perception as self…
formations as self…
consciousness as self,
or self as possessed of consciousness,
or consciousness as in self,
or self as in consciousness.

That is how one is invincible in regard to presently arisen states.

§ 10. .“I was instructing, urging, rousing, and gladdening the bhikkhus with talk on the Dhamma thus, and reciting the summary and exposition of ‘One Who Has Had a Single Excellent Night’ thus.”
“Good, good, Ānanda! It is good that you were instructing, urging, rousing, and gladdening the bhikkhus with talk on the Dhamma thus, and reciting the summary and exposition of ‘One Who Has Had a Single Excellent Night’ thus:

§12–§19. “Let not a person revive the past…
(Repeat the whole of the last , §§3–10 up to:)

Who has had a single excellent night.”
That is what the Blessed One said.

The venerable Ānanda was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

141 The Exposition of the Truths

MN 03-04-11 Sacca Vibhanga Sutta

LISTEN TO THE AUDIO READING OF SUTTA
Exposition by Ven Bhikku Bodhi


§ 1. THUS HAVE I HEARD.
On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Benares in the Deer Park at Isipatana. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus:
“Bhikkhus.”—“Venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:

§ 2 “At Benares, bhikkhus, in the Deer Park at Isipatana the Tathagata, accomplished and fully enlightened, set rolling the matchless Wheel of the Dhamma,1288 which cannot be stopped by any recluse or brahmin or god or Mara or Brahma or anyone in the world—
that is, the announcing, teaching, describing, establishing, revealing, expounding, and exhibiting of the Four Noble Truths.
Of what four?

[1288:- This refers to the Buddha’s first sermon, delivered to the five bhikkhus in the Deer Park at Isipatana.]

§ 3.“The announcing, teaching, describing, establishing, revealing, expounding, and exhibiting of the noble truth of suffering.
The announcing, teaching, describing, establishing, revealing, expounding, and exhibiting of the noble truth of the origin of suffering.
…of the noble truth of the cessation of suffering.
…of the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering.

§ 4 “At Benares, bhikkhus, in the Deer Park at Isipatana the Tathagata, accomplished and fully enlightened, set rolling the matchless Wheel of the Dhamma, which cannot be stopped by any recluse or brahmin or god or Mara or Brahma or anyone in the world—
that is, the announcing, teaching, describing, establishing, revealing, expounding, and exhibiting of these Four Noble Truths.

§ 5 “Cultivate the friendship of Sariputta and Moggallana, bhikkhus; associate with Sariputta and Moggallana. They are wise and helpful to their companions in the holy life. Sāriputta is like a mother; Moggallāna is like a nurse.

Sāriputta trains others for the fruit of stream-entry, Moggallāna for the supreme goal.1289 Sāriputta, bhikkhus, is able to announce, teach, describe, establish, reveal,expound, and exhibit the Four Noble Truths.”

[1289:- MA: Ven. Sāriputta trains them until he knows they have attained the fruit of stream-entry, then he lets them develop the higher paths on their own and he takes on a new batch of pupils. But Ven. Moggallāna continues to train his pupils until they have attained arahantship.]

§ 6 .So the Blessed One said. Having said this, the Sublime One rose from his seat and went into his dwelling. [249]

§ 7 .Then, soon after the Blessed One had gone, the venerable Sāriputta addressed the bhikkhus thus:
“Friends, bhikkhus.”
—“Friend,” the bhikkhus replied to the venerable Sāriputta.
The venerable Sāriputta said this:

§ 8. “At Benares, friends, in the Deer Park at Isipatana the Tathāgata, accomplished and fully enlightened, set rolling the matchless Wheel of the Dhamma…and exhibiting of the Four Noble Truths. Of what four?

§ 9.

  • “The announcing…and exhibiting of the noble truth of suffering
  • …of the noble truth of the origin of suffering…
  • ……of the noble truth of the cessation of suffering.
  • …of the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering.

§ 10. “And what, friends, is the noble truth of suffering?

Birth is suffering;
ageing is suffering;
death is suffering;
sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair are suffering;
not to obtain what one wants is suffering;
in short, the five aggregates affected by clinging are suffering.

§ 11. “And what, friends, is birth?1290

The birth of beings into the various orders of beings, their coming to birth, precipitation [in a womb], generation, the manifestation of the aggregates, obtaining the bases for contact—this is called birth.

[1290:- The definitions of birth, ageing, and death are also found at Samma ditthi Sutta MN 9.22, 26. This entire detailed analysis of the Four Noble Truths is included in the Mahāsatịhāna Sutta, with an even more elaborate exposition of the second and third truths. See DN 22.18–21/ii.305–13.]

§ 12. “And what, friends, is ageing?

The ageing of beings in the various orders of beings,
their old age,
brokenness of teeth,
greyness of hair,
wrinkling of skin,
decline of life,
weakness of faculties
—this is called ageing.

§ 13.“And what, friends, is death?

The passing of beings out of the various orders of beings,
their passing away,
dissolution,
disappearance,
dying,
completion of time,
dissolution of aggregates,
laying down of the body
—this is called death.

§ 14.“And what, friends, is sorrow?

The sorrow, sorrowing, sorrowfulness, inner sorrow, inner sorriness, of one who has encountered some misfortune or is affected by some painful state
—this is called sorrow.

§ 15.“And what, friends, is lamentation?

The wail and lament, wailing and lamenting, [250] bewailing and lamentation, of one who has encountered some misfortune or is affected by some painful state—this is called lamentation.

§ 16. And what, friends, is pain?
Bodily pain, bodily discomfort, painful, uncomfortable feeling born of bodily contact—this is called pain.

§ 17. “And what, friends, is grief?

Mental pain, mental discomfort, painful, uncomfortable feeling born of mental contact
—this is called grief.

§ 18. “And what, friends, is despair?

The trouble and despair, the tribulation and desperation, of one who has encountered some misfortune or is affected by some painful state
—this is called despair.

§ 19. “And what, friends, is ‘not to obtain what one wants is suffering’?

  • To beings subject to birth there comes the wish:
    ‘Oh, that we were not subject to birth! That birth would not come to us!’
    But this is not to be obtained by wishing, and not to obtain what one wants is suffering.
  • To beings subject to ageing…
  • To beings subject to subject to sickness…
  • To beings subject to subject to death…
  • To beings subject to subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair, there comes the wish: ‘Oh, that we were not subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair! That sorrow, lamentation, pain,grief, and despair would not come to us!’ But this is not to be obtained by wishing, and not to obtain what one wants is suffering.

§ 20. “And what, friends, are the five aggregates affected by clinging that, in short, are suffering?
They are: the material form aggregate affected by clinging,
the feeling aggregate affected by clinging,
the perception aggregate affected by clinging,
the formations aggregate affected by clinging, and the consciousness
aggregate affected by clinging.

These are the five aggregates affected by clinging that, in short, are suffering.

This is called the noble truth of suffering.

§ 21. “And what, friends, is the noble truth of the origin of suffering?

It is craving, which brings renewal of being, is accompanied by delight and lust, and delights in this and that; that is, craving for sensual pleasures, craving for being, [251] and craving for non-being. This is called the noble truth of the origin of suffering.

§ 22.“And what, friends, is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering?
It is the remainderless fading away and ceasing, the giving up, relinquishing, letting go, and rejecting of that same craving. This is called the noble truth of the cessation of suffering.

§ 23. “And what, friends, is the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering?
It is just this Noble Eightfold Path;
that is,
right view, right intention,
right speech, right action, right livelihood,
right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration.

§ 24 “And what, friends, is right view?
Knowledge of suffering,
knowledge of the origin of suffering,
knowledge of the cessation of suffering, and
knowledge of the way leading to the cessation of suffering
—this is called right view.

§ 25.“And what, friends, is right intention?
Intention of renunciation,
intention of non-ill will, and
intention of non-cruelty
—this is called right intention “

§ 26. And what, friends, is right speech?
Abstaining from false speech,
abstaining from malicious speech,
abstaining from harsh speech, and
abstaining from idle chatter
—this is called right speech.

§ 27. “And what, friends, is right action?
Abstaining from killing living beings,
abstaining from taking what is not given, and
abstaining from misconduct in sensual pleasures
—this is called right action.

§ 28. “And what, friends, is right livelihood?
Here a noble disciple, having abandoned wrong livelihood,
earns his living by right livelihood
—this is called right livelihood.

§ 29. “And what, friends, is right effort?
Here a bhikkhu awakens zeal for the non-arising of unarisen evil unwholesome states, and
he makes effort, arouses energy, exerts his mind, and strives.
He awakens zeal for the abandoning of arisen evil unwholesome states, and
he makes effort, arouses energy, exerts his mind, and strives.
He awakens zeal for the arising of unarisen wholesome states, [252] and he makes effort, arouses energy, exerts his mind, and strives.
He awakens zeal for the continuance, non-disappearance, strengthening, increase, and fulfilment by development of arisen wholesome states, and
he makes effort, arouses energy, exerts his mind, and strives. This is called right effort.

§ 30. “And what, friends, is right mindfulness?
Here a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body as a body, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, having put away covetousness and grief for the world.
He abides contemplating feelings as feelings, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, having put away covetousness and grief for the world.
He abides contemplating mind as mind, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, having put away covetousness and grief for the world.
He abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, having put away covetousness and grief for the world.
– This is called right mindfulness.

§ 31. “And what, friends, is right concentration?
Here, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion.

With the stilling of applied and sustained thought, he enters upon and abides in the second jhāna, which has self confidence and singleness of mind without applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of concentration.

With the fading away as well of rapture, he abides in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling pleasure with the body, he enters upon and abides in the third jhāna, on account of which noble ones announce: ‘He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.’

With the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, he enters upon and abides in the fourth jhāna, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity.
-This is called right concentration.

“This is called the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering.

§ 32 “At Benares, friends, in the Deer Park at Isipatana the Tathāgata,
accomplished and fully enlightened, set rolling the matchless Wheel of the Dhamma, which cannot be stopped by any recluse or brahmin or god or Māra or Brahmā or anyone in the world—that is, the announcing, teaching, describing, establishing, revealing, expounding, and exhibiting of these Four Noble Truths.”
That is what the venerable Sāriputta said.
The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the venerable Sāriputta’s words.

116 The Gullet of the Seers

MN 03-02-06 Isigili Sutta

LIsten to the Sutta In English read by Venerable Chandana

§ 1. THUS HAVE I HEARD.1093
On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Rājagaha, at Isigili—the Gullet of the Seers. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.”
—“Venerable sir,” they replied.

[1093:- In Sri Lanka this sutta is regularly recited as a protective discourse and is included in the medieval compilation, Mahā Pirit Pota, “The Great Book of Protection.”]

The Blessed One said this:

§ 2. “You see, bhikkhus, do you not, that mountain Vebhāra?”1094
—“Yes, venerable sir.”

[194:- This and the following are mountains surrounding Rājagaha]


§ 3 “There used to be another name, another designation, for that mountain Vebhāra.
You see, bhikkhus, do you not, that mountain Paṇḍava?”
—“Yes, venerable sir.”
“There used to be another name, another designation, for that mountain Paṇḍava.
You see, bhikkhus, do you not, that mountain Vepulla?”
—“Yes, venerable sir.”
“There used to be another name, another designation, for that mountain Vepulla.
You see, bhikkhus, do you not, that mountain Gijjhakuṭa—the Vulture Peak?”
—“Yes, venerable sir.”
“There used to be another name, another designation, for that mountain Gijjhakuṭa—the Vulture Peak.
You see, bhikkhus, do you not, that mountain Isigili—the Gullet of the Seers?”
—“Yes, venerable sir.”

“There used to be this same name, this same designation, for this mountain Isigili—the Gullet of the Seers. For in former times five hundred paccekabuddhas1095 dwelt long on this mountain, the Gullet of the Seers.

[1095:- A paccekabuddha is one who attains enlightenment and liberation on his own, without relying on the Dhamma taught by the Buddha, but is not capable of teaching the Dhamma to others and establishing the Dispensation.
Paccekabuddhas arise only at a time when no Dispensation of a Buddha exists in the world. For a fuller study of the subject see Ria Kloppenborg, The Paccekabuddha: A Buddhist Ascetic ]

They were seen entering into this hill; once gone in, they were no longer seen. People who saw this said: ‘This mountain swallows up these seers.’1096 And so it was that this came to be named ‘The Gullet of the Seers.’

[1096:- Ayaṁ pabbato ime isı̄ gilati: a word play is involved here. The gili in Isigili is certainly a dialectical variant of giri, hill, but the text connects it to the verb gilati, to swallow, and to gala, throat, gullet.]

I shall tell you, bhikkhus, the names of the paccekabuddhas, I shall relate to you the names of the
paccekabuddhas, I shall teach you [69] the names of the paccekabuddhas. Listen and attend closely to what I shall say.”
—“Yes, venerable sir,” the bhikkhus replied.
The Blessed One said this:

§ 4 .“Bhikkhus, the paccekabuddha Ariṭṭha dwelt long on this mountain Isigili.
The paccekabuddha Upariṭṭha dwelt long on this mountain Isigili.
The paccekabuddha Tagarasikhin1097… Yasassin…Sudassana…Piyadassin…Gandhāra…Piṇḍola… Up̄sabha…Nītha…Tatha…Sutav̄…Bh̄vitatta dwelt long on this mountain Isigili.

[1097:- Tagarasikhin is referred to at Ud 5:4/50 and SN 3:20/i.92.]

§ 5  .“These saintly beings, desireless, rid of suffering,
Who each achieved awakening by himself—
Hear me relate the names of these, the greatest
Of men, who have plucked out the dart [of pain]. 

Ariṭṭha, Upariṭṭha, Tagarasikhin, Yasassin,
Sudassana, and Piyadassin the enlightened,
Gandhāra, Piṇḍola, Upāsabha as well,
Nītha, Tatha, Sutavā, Bhāvitatta. [70]  

§ 6  .“Sumbha, Subha, Methula, and Aṭṭhama,1098
Then Assumegha, Anīgha, Sudāṭha—
And Hingū, and Hinga, the greatly powerful,
Paccekabuddhas who have destroyed the conduit to being.     

Two sages named Jāli, and Aṭṭhaka,
Then Kosala the enlightened, then Subāhu,
Upanemi, and Nemi, and Santacitta
Right and true, immaculate and wise.  

Kāḷa, Upakāḷa, Vijita, and Jita;
Anga, and Panga, and Gutijjita too;
Passin conquered acquisition, the root of suffering;
Aparājita conquered Māra’s power.

Satthar, Pavattar, Sarabhanga, Lomahaṁsa,
Uccangamāya, Asita, Anāsava,
Manomaya, and Bandhumant the free from pride,
Tadādhimutta stainless and resplendent;

Ketumbarāga, Mātanga, and Ariya,
Then Accuta, Accutagāma, Byāmaka,
Sumangala, Dabbila, Supatiṭṭhita,
Asayha, Khemābhirata, and Sorata,

Durannaya, Sangha, and then Ujjaya;
Another sage, Sayha, of noble endeavour.
And twelve between—Ānandas, Nandas, and Upanandas—
And Bhāradvāja bearing his last body;

Then Bodhi, Mahānāma the supreme,
Bhāradvāja with fair-crested mane;
Tissa and Upatissa not bound to being;
Upasīdarin, and Sīdarin, free from craving.

Enlightened was Mangala, free from lust;
Usabha cut the net, the root of suffering.
Upanīta attained the state of peace,
Purified, excellent, truly named.

Jeta, Jayanta, Paduma, and Uppala,
Padumuttara, Rakkhita, and Pabbata, [71]
Mānatthaddha glorious, Vītarāga
And Kaṇha enlightened with mind released.

[1098:- Ñm remarks in Ms that without the aid of the commentary it is extremely difficult to distinguish the proper names of the paccekabuddhas from their descriptive epithets.]

§ 7 .“These and also other great and mighty,
Paccekabuddhas no more led to being—
Honour these sages who, having gone beyond all ties,
Have attained final Nibbāna, past all measure.”

114 To Be Cultivated and Not to Be Cultivated

MN 03-02-04 Sevitabbasevitabba Sutta:

You can Listen to the Audio Book reading of Sutta by clicking the icon on left

§ 1. THUS HAVE I HEARD.
On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Sāvatthī in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus:
“Bhikkhus.”—
“Venerable sir,” they replied.
The Blessed One said this:

§ 2 . “Bhikkhus, I shall teach you a discourse on what should be cultivated and what should not be cultivated. Listen and attend closely to what I shall say.”—
“Yes, venerable sir,”
the bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said this:

Track 1 of Sutta Exposition by Ven Bhikku Bodhi
Track 2 of Sutta Exposition by Ven Bhikku Bodhi

FIRST EXPOSITION

§ 3, “Bhikkhus,1069
bodily conduct is of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated. And bodily conduct is different from the one or the other.1070
Verbal conduct is of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated. And verbal conduct is different from the one or the other.
Mental conduct is of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated. And mental conduct is different from the one or the other.
Inclination of mind is of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated. And inclination of mind is different from the one or the other. [46]
The acquisition of perception is of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated. And the acquisition of perception is different from the one or the other.
The acquisition of view is of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated. And the acquisition of view is different from the one or the other.
The acquisition of individuality is of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated. And the acquisition of individuality is different from the one or the other.”

[1069:- This first paragraph in blue background offers merely a “table of contents,” to be elaborated in the body of the sutta.]

[1070:- Aññamaññaṁ. MA: The two are mutually exclusive, and there is no way by which the one can be regarded as the other.

FIRST ELABORATION

§ 4. When this was said, the venerable Sāriputta said to the Blessed One:
“Venerable sir, I understand the detailed meaning of the Blessed One’s utterance, which he has spoken in brief without expounding the detailed meaning, to be thus:

§ 5. “‘Bhikkhus, bodily conduct is of two kinds, I say:
to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.
And bodily conduct is either the one or the other.’ So it was said by the Blessed One. And with reference to what was this said?
“Venerable sir, such bodily conduct as causes unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates it should not be cultivated. But such bodily conduct as causes unwholesome states to diminish and wholesome states to increase in one who cultivates it should be cultivated.

“And what kind of bodily conduct causes unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates it?

  • Here someone kills living beings; he is murderous, bloody-handed, given to blows and violence, merciless to living beings.
  • He takes what is not given; he takes by way of theft the wealth and property of others in the village or in the forest.
  • He misconducts himself in sensual pleasures; he has intercourse with such women as are protected by their mother, father, mother and father, brother, sister, or relatives, who have a husband, who are protected by law, and even with those who are garlanded in token of betrothal.
    Such bodily conduct [47] causes unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates it.

“And what kind of bodily conduct causes unwholesome states to diminish and wholesome states to increase in one who cultivates it?

  • Here someone, abandoning the killing of living beings, abstains from killing living beings; with rod and weapon laid aside, gently and kindly, he abides compassionate to all living beings.
  • Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given; he does not take by way of theft the wealth and property of others in the village or in the forest.
  • Abandoning misconduct in sensual pleasures, he abstains from misconduct in sensual pleasures; he does not have intercourse with such women as are protected by their mother, father, mother and father, brother, sister, or relatives, who have a husband, who are protected by law, or with those who are garlanded in token of betrothal.

    Such bodily conduct causes unwholesome states to diminish and wholesome states to increase in one who cultivates it.

“So it was with reference to this that it was said by the Blessed One: ‘Bhikkhus, bodily conduct is of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated. And bodily conduct is either the one or the other.’

§ 6. “‘Bhikkhus, verbal conduct is of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated. And verbal conduct is either the one or the other.’ So it was said by the Blessed One.
And with reference to what was this said?
“Venerable sir, such verbal conduct as causes unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates it should not be cultivated. But such verbal conduct as causes unwholesome states to diminish and wholesome states to increase in one who cultivates it should be cultivated.

“And what kind of verbal conduct causes unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates it?

Here someone speaks falsehood;
when summoned to a court, or to a meeting, [48] or to his relatives’ presence, or to his guild, or to the royal family’s presence, and questioned as a witness thus: ‘So, good man, tell what you know,’ not knowing, he says, ‘I know,’ or
knowing, he says, ‘I do not know’;
not seeing, he says, ‘I see,’ or
seeing, he says, ‘I do not see’;
in full awareness he speaks falsehood for his own ends, or for another’s ends, or for some trifling worldly end.

He speaks maliciously;
he repeats elsewhere what he has heard here in order to divide [those people] from these, or
he repeats to these people what he has heard elsewhere in order to divide [these people] from those; thus he is one who divides those who are united, a creator of divisions, who enjoys discord,
rejoices in discord, delights in discord, a speaker of words that create discord.

He speaks harshly;
he utters such words as are rough, hard, hurtful to others, offensive to others,
bordering on anger, unconducive to concentration.

He is a gossip;
he speaks at the wrong time,
speaks what is not fact,
speaks what is useless,
speaks contrary to the Dhamma and the Discipline;
at the wrong time he speaks such words as are worthless, unreasonable, immoderate, and unbeneficial.
Such verbal conduct causes unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates it.

“And what kind of verbal conduct causes unwholesome states to diminish and
wholesome states to increase in one who cultivates it?

Here someone,
abandoning false speech,
abstains from false speech; when summoned to a court, or to a meeting, or to his relatives’ presence, or to his guild, or to the royal family’s presence, and questioned as a witness thus: ‘So, good man, tell what you know,’ not knowing, he says, ‘I do not know,’ or knowing, he says, ‘I know’; not seeing, he says, ‘I do not see,’ or seeing, he says, ‘I see’; [49] he does not in full awareness speak falsehood for his own ends, or for another’s ends, or for some trifling worldly end.

Abandoning malicious speech,
he abstains from malicious speech; he does not repeat elsewhere what he has heard here in order
to divide [those people] from these, nor does he repeat to these people what he has heard elsewhere in order to divide [these people] from those; thus he is one who reunites those who are divided, a promoter of friendships, who enjoys concord, rejoices in concord, delights in concord, a speaker of words that promote concord.

Abandoning harsh speech,
he abstains from harsh speech; he speaks such words as are gentle, pleasing to the ear, and loveable, as go to the heart, are courteous, desired by many, and agreeable to many.

Abandoning gossip,
he abstains from gossip; he speaks at the right time, speaks what is fact, speaks on what is good, speaks on the Dhamma and the Discipline; at the right time he speaks such words as are worth recording, reasonable, moderate, and beneficial. Such verbal conduct causes unwholesome states to diminish and wholesome states to increase in one who cultivates it.
“So it was with reference to this that it was said by the Blessed One:
‘Bhikkhus, verbal conduct is of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated. And verbal conduct is either the one or the other.’

§ 7 . “‘Mental conduct is of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.
And mental conduct is either the one or the other.’ So it was said by the Blessed One. And with reference to what was this said?

“Venerable sir, such mental conduct as causes unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates it should not be cultivated. But such mental conduct as causes unwholesome states to diminish and wholesome states to increase in one who cultivates it should be cultivated.

“And what kind of mental conduct causes unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates it?

Here someone is covetous; he covets the wealth and property of others thus:
‘Oh, may what belongs to another be mine!’ Or
he has a mind of ill will and intentions of hate [50] thus:
‘May these beings be slain and slaughtered, may they be cut off, perish, or be annihilated!’
Such mental conduct causes unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates it.

“And what kind of mental conduct causes unwholesome states to diminish and wholesome states to increase in one who cultivates it?

Here someone is not covetous; he does not covet the wealth and property of others thus: ‘Oh, may what belongs to another be mine!’
His mind is without ill will and he has intentions free from hate thus:
‘May these beings be free from enmity, affliction, and anxiety! May they look after themselves happily!’
Such mental conduct causes unwholesome states to diminish and wholesome states to increase in one who cultivates it.
“So it was with reference to this that it was said by the Blessed One:
‘Bhikkhus, mental conduct is of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated. And mental conduct is either the one or the other.’1071

[1071:- Although wrong view and right view are usually included under mental conduct, in this sutta they are shown separately in §10 as “the acquisition of view.”]

§ 8. “‘Inclination of mind is of two kinds, I say:
to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.
And inclination of mind is either the one or the other.’
So it was said by the Blessed One. And with reference to what was this said?

“Venerable sir, such inclination of mind as causes unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates it should not be cultivated.
But such inclination of mind as causes unwholesome states to diminish and wholesome states to increase in one who cultivates it should be cultivated.

“And what kind of inclination of mind causes unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates it?

Here someone is covetous and abides with his mind imbued with covetousness; he has ill will and abides with his mind imbued with ill will; he is cruel and abides with his mind imbued with cruelty.1072

[1072: – Whereas the covetousness and ill will described in §7 possess the strength of a full course of action (kamma-patha ), in this section on inclination of mind (cittuppāda) they are shown in their nascent stage as mere dispositions that have not yet erupted into obsessive volitions]

Such inclination of mind causes unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates it.

“And what kind of inclination of mind causes unwholesome states to diminish and wholesome states to increase [51] in one who cultivates it?

Here someone is uncovetous and abides with his mind detached from covetousness; he is without ill will and abides with his mind detached from ill will;
he is uncruel and abides with his mind detached from cruelty.
Such inclination of mind causes unwholesome states to diminish and wholesome states to increase in one who cultivates it.
“So it was with reference to this that it was said by the Blessed One:
‘Bhikkhus, inclination of mind is of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated. And inclination of mind is either the one or the other.’

§ 9. “‘The acquisition of perception is of two kinds, I say:
to be cultivated and
not to be cultivated.
And the acquisition of perception is either the one or the other.’
So it was said by the Blessed One. And with reference to what was this said?

“Venerable sir, such acquisition of perception as causes unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates it should not be cultivated. But such acquisition of perception as causes unwholesome states to diminish and wholesome states to increase in one who cultivates it should be cultivated.

“And what kind of acquisition of perception causes unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates it?

  • Here someone is covetous and abides with his perception imbued with covetousness;
  • he has ill will and abides with his perception imbued with ill will; he is cruel and abides with his perception imbued with cruelty.

Such acquisition of perception causes unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates it.

“And what kind of acquisition of perception causes unwholesome states to diminish and wholesome states to increase in one who cultivates it?

Here someone is uncovetous and abides with his perception detached from covetousness; he is without ill will and abides with his perception detached from ill will; he is uncruel and abides with his perception detached from cruelty.

Such acquisition of perception causes unwholesome states to diminish and wholesome states to increase in one who cultivates it.
“So it was with reference to this that it was said by the Blessed One:
‘Bhikkhus, the acquisition of perception is of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated. And the acquisition of perception is either the one or the other.’ [52]

§ 10 .“‘The acquisition of view is of two kinds, I say:
to be cultivated and not to be cultivated. And the acquisition of view is either the one or the other.’
So it was said by the Blessed One. And with reference to what was this said?
“Venerable sir, such acquisition of view as causes unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates it should not be cultivated. But such acquisition of view as causes unwholesome states to diminish and wholesome states to increase in one who cultivates it should be cultivated.

“And what kind of acquisition of view causes unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates it?

Here someone holds such a view as this:
‘There is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed;
no fruit or result of good and bad actions;
no this world, no other world;
no mother, no father;
no beings who are reborn spontaneously;
no good and virtuous recluses and brahmins in the world who have realised for themselves by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world.’

Such acquisition of view causes unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates it.

“And what kind of acquisition of view causes unwholesome states to diminish and wholesome states to increase in one who cultivates it?

Here someone holds such a view as this:

  • ‘There is what is given and what is offered and what is sacrificed;
  • there is fruit and result of good and bad actions;
  • there is this world and the other world;
  • there is merit in looking after mother and father;
  • there are beings who are reborn spontaneously;
  • there are good and virtuous recluses and brahmins in the world who have realised for themselves by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world.’

Such acquisition of view causes unwholesome states to diminish and wholesome states to increase in one who cultivates it.
“So it was with reference to this that it was said by the Blessed One:
‘Bhikkhus, the acquisition of view is of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated. And the acquisition of view is either the one or the other.’

§ 11.“‘The acquisition of individuality is of two kinds, I say: 1073
to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.
And the acquisition of individuality is either the one or the other.’
So it was said by the Blessed One.
And with reference to what was this said?

[1073:- “Acquisition of individuality” (attabh̄vapaṭil̄bha) here refers to mode of rebirth.]

“Venerable sir, [53] such acquisition of individuality as causes unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates it should not be cultivated. But such acquisition of individuality as causes unwholesome states to diminish and wholesome states to increase in one who cultivates it should be cultivated.

“And what kind of acquisition of individuality causes unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates it?

When a person generates an acquisition of individuality that is subject to affliction, unwholesome states increase and wholesome states diminish in him, preventing him from reaching the consummation.1074

[1074:- Apariniṭṭ̣hitabhāvāya. The expression may be unique to this sutta. MA glosses it with bhavānaṁ Apariniṭṭ̣hitabhāvāya and explains:
There are four modes of individual existence “subject to affliction” (sabyājjhattabhāvā).
The first is the worldling who is unable to reach the consummation of existence in that particular life; for him, from the time of rebirth on, unwholesome states increase and wholesome states diminish, and he generates an individuality accompanied by suffering. So too the stream-enterer, once-returner, and nonreturner.
Even non-returners still have not abandoned craving for being, and thus have not reached consummation. The individuals [mentioned just below in the text] who acquire individual existence “free from affliction” (sabyājjhattabhāvā) are the same four when they enter the final existence in which they are to attain arahantship. Even the worldling in his last existence is able to consummate existence, like the serial killer Angulimāla. Their existence is said to be free from affliction, and they are said to reach consummation.]

FIRST APPROVAL & RECAPITULATION

§ 13 . “Good, good, Sāriputta!
It is good that you understand the detailed meaning of my utterance, which I spoke in brief without expounding the detailed meaning, to be thus.
§ 14–20. [54, 55] (In these paragraphs the Buddha repeats verbatim §§5–11,
with the substitution of “S̄riputta” for “venerable sir” and of “by me” for “by the Blessed One.”)

“Sāriputta, the detailed meaning of my utterance, which I spoke in brief, should be regarded thus.

“And what kind of acquisition of individuality causes unwholesome states to diminish and wholesome states to increase in one who cultivates it?

When a person generates an acquisition of individuality that is free from affliction, unwholesome states diminish and wholesome states increase in him, enabling him to reach the consummation.

“So it was with reference to this that it was said by the Blessed One:
‘Bhikkhus, the acquisition of individuality is of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated
and not to be cultivated.
And the acquisition of individuality is either the one or the other.’

§ 12. “Venerable sir, I understand the detailed meaning of the Blessed One’s utterance, which he has spoken in brief without expounding the detailed meaning, to be thus.”

SECOND EXPOSITION

“Sāriputta, forms cognizable by the eye are of two kinds, I say: [56]
to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.1075

[1075:- MA points out that the clause “Forms are either the one or the other” is not used here because the distinction does not lie in the object but in the approach to it. For one person lust and other defilements arise towards a particular form, but another person develops dispassion and detachment in regard to the same form.]

  • Sounds cognizable by the ear are of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.
  • Odours cognizable by the nose are of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.
  • Flavours cognizable by the tongue are of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.
  • Tangibles cognizable by the body are of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.
  • Mind-objects cognizable by the mind are of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.”

SECOND ELABORATION

§ 23 . When this was said, the venerable Sāriputta said to the Blessed One:
“Venerable sir, I understand the detailed meaning of the Blessed One’s utterance, which he has spoken in brief without expounding the detailed meaning, to be thus:

§ 24. “‘S̄riputta, forms cognizable by the eye are of two kinds, I say: [56] to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.’ So it was said by the Blessed One. And with reference to what was this said?

“Venerable sir, such forms cognizable by the eye as cause unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates them should not be cultivated. But such forms cognizable by the eye as cause unwholesome states to diminish and wholesome states to increase in one who cultivates them should be cultivated.
“So it was with reference to this that it was said by the Blessed One:

‘Sāriputta, forms cognizable by the eye are of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.’

§ 25. “‘Sounds cognizable by the ear are of two kinds, I say’…
§ 26. “‘Odours cognizable by the nose are of two kinds, I say’…[57]“
§ 27. ‘Flavours cognizable by the tongue are of two kinds, I say’…“
§ 28. ‘Tangibles cognizable by the body are of two kinds, I say’…“
§ 29. ‘Mind-objects cognizable by the mind are of two kinds, I say:
to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.’

So it was said by the Blessed One. And with reference to what was this said?

“Venerable sir, such mind-objects cognizable by the mind as cause unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates them should not be cultivated. [58] But such mind-objects cognizable by the mind as cause unwholesome states to diminish and wholesome states to increase in one who cultivates them should be cultivated.

“So it was with reference to this that it was said by the Blessed One:
‘Mind objects cognizable by the mind are of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not
to be cultivated.’

§ 30. “Venerable sir, I understand the detailed meaning of the Blessed One’s utterance, which he has spoken in brief without expounding the detailed meaning, to be thus.”

SECOND APPROVAL & RECAPITULATION

§ 31 . “Good, good, Sāriputta!
It is good that you understand the detailed meaning of my utterance, which I spoke in brief without expounding the detailed meaning, to be thus.

§ 32– §37. (In these paragraphs the Buddha repeats verbatim §§24–29, with the necessary substitutions.)

“Sāriputta, the detailed meaning of my utterance, which I spoke in brief, should be regarded thus.

THIRD EXPOSITION

§ 39 . “Sāriputta, robes are of two kinds, I say:
to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.

  • Alms food is of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.
  • Resting places are of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.
  • Villages are of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.
  • Towns are of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.
  • Cities are of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.
  • Districts are of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.
  • Persons are of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.” [59]

When this was said, the venerable Sāriputta said to the Blessed One:
“Venerable sir, I understand the detailed meaning of the Blessed One’s utterance,
which he has spoken in brief without expounding the detailed meaning, to be
thus:

“‘Sāriputta, robes are of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.’
So it was said by the Blessed One. And with reference to what was this said?
“Venerable sir, such robes as cause unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates them should not be cultivated. But such robes as cause unwholesome states to diminish and wholesome states to increase in one who cultivates them should be cultivated.
“So it was with reference to this that it was said by the Blessed One:
‘Sāriputta, robes are of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.’

“‘Almsfood is of two kinds, I say’… “
‘Resting places are of two kinds, I say’… “
‘Villages are of two kinds, I say’… “
‘Towns are of two kinds, I say’… “
‘Cities are of two kinds, I say’… “
‘Districts are of two kinds, I say’… “
‘Persons are of two kinds, I say: to be cultivated and not to be cultivated.’
So it was said by the Blessed One.

And with reference to what was this said?
“Venerable sir, [association with] such persons as causes unwholesome states to increase and wholesome states to diminish in one who cultivates it should not be cultivated. But [association with] such persons as causes unwholesome states to diminish and wholesome states to increase in one who cultivates it should be cultivated.
“So it was with reference to this that it was said by the Blessed One:
‘Persons are of two kinds, I say:
to be cultivated and
not to be cultivated.’

“Venerable sir, I understand the detailed meaning of the Blessed One’s utterance, which he has spoken in brief without expounding the detailed meaning, to be thus.”

THIRD APPROVAL & RECAPITULATION

“Good, good, Sāriputta! It is good that you understand the detailed meaning of my utterance, which I spoke in brief without expounding the detailed meaning, to be thus.
§51–58. (In these paragraphs the Buddha repeats verbatim §§41–48 with the necessary substitutions.) [60]

“Sāriputta, the detailed meaning of my utterance, which I spoke in brief,
should be regarded thus.

CONCLUSION

§ 60. “Sāriputta, if all nobles understood thus the detailed meaning of my utterance, which I spoke in brief, it would lead to their welfare and happiness for a long time.1076

[1076:- MA says that those who study the text and commentary to this sutta without practising in accordance with it cannot be said to “understand the detailed meaning.” Only those who practise accordingly can be so described.]

If all brahmins…all merchants…all workers understood thus the meaning of my utterance, which I spoke in brief, it would lead to their welfare and happiness for a long time. If the world with its gods, its Māras, and its Brahmās, this generation with its recluses and brahmins, its princes and its
people, understood thus the detailed meaning of my utterance, which I spoke in brief, it would lead to the welfare and happiness of the world for a long time.”

That is what the Blessed One said.
The venerable Sāriputta was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

098 Vasettha Sutta

Brahmin is not by Birth

Sutta Exposition by by Bhante Suddhāso


§ 1. THUS HAVE I HEARD.900
On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Icchānangala, in the wood near Icchānangala.

[900:- The text of this sutta has not been included in the PTS ed. of the Majjhima Nikāya, for the same reason given , as it is identical with the sutta of the same name in the Sutta Nipāta, published in two different versions by the PTS. The bracketed page numbers refer to the Anderson-Smith ed. of Sn.]

§ 2. Now on that occasion a number of well-known, well-to-do brahmins were staying at Icchānangala, that is, the brahmin Cankī, the brahmin Tārukkha, the brahmin Pokkharasāti, the brahmin Jāṇussoṇi, the brahmin Todeyya, and other well-known, well-to-do brahmins.

§ 3. Then, while the brahmin students Vāseṭṭha and Bhāradvāja were walking and wandering for exercise, this discussion arose between them:
“How is one a brahmin?”
The brahmin student Bhāradvāja said:
“When one is well born on both sides, of pure maternal and paternal descent seven generations back, unassailable and impeccable in respect of birth, then one is a brahmin.”

The brahmin student Vāseṭṭha said:
“When one is virtuous and fulfils the observances, then one is a brahmin.”

§ 4. But the brahmin student Bhāradvāja could not [116] convince the brahmin student Vāseṭṭha, nor could the brahmin student Vāseṭṭha convince the brahmin student Bhāradvāja.

§ 5. Then the brahmin student Vāseṭṭha addressed the brahmin student Bhāradvāja:
“Sir, the recluse Gotama, the son of the Sakyans who went forth from a Sakyan clan, is living at Icchānangala, in the wood near Icchānangala. Now a good report of Master Gotama has been spread to this effect: ‘That Blessed One is accomplished, fully enlightened, perfect in true knowledge and conduct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, enlightened, blessed.’ Come, Bh̄radv̄ja, let us go to the recluse Gotama and ask him about this matter. As he answers, so we will remember it.”—
“Yes, sir,” the brahmin student Bhāradvāja replied.

§ 6 . Then the two brahmin students, Vāseṭṭha and Bhāradvāja, went to the Blessed One and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, they sat down at one side and the brahmin student Vāseṭṭha addressed the Blessed One in stanzas thus:

§ 7 . Vāseṭṭha

1. “We are both acknowledged to possess
The knowledge we claim of the Triple Veda,
For I am Pokkharasāti’s pupil
And he a pupil of Tārukkha. 

2. We have attained full mastery
Over all that the Vedic experts teach;
Skilled in philology and grammar
We match our teachers in recitation. [117]  

3. A dispute has arisen between us, Gotama,
Concerning the question of birth and class:
Bhāradvāja says one is a brahmin by birth,
While I hold one is a brahmin by action.901
Know this, O Seer, as our debate.    
[ 901:- Here the word “kamma” has to be understood as present action or deed, and 
not past action producing its present consequences.]

 4. Since neither of us could convince the other,
Or make him see his point of view,
We have come to ask you, sir,
Widely famed to be a Buddha. 

 5. As people turn with palms upraised
Towards the moon when it starts to wax,
So in the world do they venerate you
And pay homage to you, Gotama. 

 6. So now we ask of you, Gotama,
The eye uprisen in the world:
Is one a brahmin by birth or action?
Explain to us who do not know
How we should recognise a brahmin.”

§ 8. Buddha

7. “I teach you in order as they really are,
Vāseṭṭha,” said the Blessed One,
“The generic divisions of living beings;
For many are the kinds of birth. 

 8. Know first the grass and trees:
Though they lack self-awareness,
Their birth is their distinctive mark;
For many are the kinds of birth. [118]  

9. Next come the moths and butterflies
And so on through to ants and termites:
Their birth is their distinctive mark;
For many are the kinds of birth.  

10. Then know the kinds of quadrupeds
[Of varied sorts] both small and large:
Their birth is their distinctive mark;
For many are the kinds of birth. 

 11. Know those whose bellies are their feet,
To wit, the long-backed class of snakes:
Their birth is their distinctive mark;
For many are the kinds of birth.  

12. Know too the water-dwelling fish
That pasture in the liquid world:
Their birth is their distinctive mark;
For many are the kinds of birth.

 13. Next know the birds that wing their way
As they range in open skies:
Their birth is their distinctive mark;
For many are the kinds of birth.

§  9.  
14.“While in these births the differences
Of birth make their distinctive mark,
With humans no differences of birth
Make a distinctive mark in them.  

15. Nor in the hairs nor in the head
Nor in the ears nor in the eyes
Nor in the mouth nor in the nose
Nor in the lips nor in the brows;  

16. Nor in the shoulders or the neck
Nor in the belly or the back
Nor in the buttocks or the breast
Nor in the genitals or ways of mating;  

17. Nor in the hands nor in the feet
Nor in the fingers or the nails
Nor in the knees nor in the thighs
Nor in their colour or in voice:
Here birth makes no distinctive mark
As with the other kinds of birth. [119]  

18. In human bodies in themselves
Nothing distinctive can be found.
Distinction among human beings
Is purely verbal designation.902

[902:- Sāmaññā. MA: Among animals the diversity in the shape of their bodily  parts is determined by their species (yoni), but that (species differentiation) is not  found in the individual bodies of brahmins and other classes of humans. Such
being the case, the distinction between brahmins, khattiyas, etc., is purely a  verbal designation; it is spoken of as mere conventional expression. ]

§ 10.  
19. “Who makes his living among men903
By agriculture, you should know
Is called a farmer, Vāseṭṭha;
He is not a brahmin.  
[903:- MA: Up to this point the Buddha has criticised the assertion of Bhāradvāja  that birth makes one a brahmin. Now he will uphold the assertion of Vāseṭṭha  that action makes one a brahmin. For the ancient brahmins and other wise ones
in the world would not recognise the brahminhood of one defective in  livelihood, virtue, and conduct.]

20. Who makes his living among men
By varied crafts, you should know
Is called a craftsman, Vāseṭṭha;
He is not a brahmin.  

21. Who makes his living among men
By merchandise, you should know
Is called a merchant, Vāseṭṭha;
He is not a brahmin. 

 22. Who makes his living among men
By serving others, you should know
Is called a servant, Vāseṭṭha;
He is not a brahmin.  

23. Who makes his living among men
By stealing, you should know
Is called a robber, Vāseṭṭha;
He is not a brahmin. 

 24 . Who makes his living among men
By archery, you should know
Is called a soldier, Vāseṭṭha;
He is not a brahmin.  

25. Who makes his living among men
By priestly craft, you should know
Is called a chaplain, Vāseṭṭha;
He is not a brahmin.  

26. Whoever governs among men
The town and realm, you should know
Is called a ruler, Vāseṭṭha;
He is not a brahmin.

§ 11. 
27. “I call him not a brahmin
Because of his origin and lineage.
If impediments still lurk in him,
He is just one who says ‘Sir.’904
Who is unimpeded and clings no more:
He is the one I call a brahmin. 
[904:- Bhovādi. Bho, “sir,” was a mode of address used among the brahmins. From this point on the Buddha will identify the true brahmin with the arahant. Verses  27–54 here are identical with Dhp 396–423, except for an additional couplet in
Dhp 423.]


28. Who has cut off all fetters
And is no more by anguish shaken,
Who has overcome all ties, detached:
He is the one I call a brahmin. [120]

 29. Who has cut each strap and thong,
The reins and bridle-band as well,
Whose cross-bar is lifted, the awakened one:
He is the one I call a brahmin. 

30. Who endures without a trace of hate
Abuse, violence, and bondage too,
With strength of patience well arrayed:
He is the one I call a brahmin. 

31. Who does not flare up with anger,
Dutiful, virtuous, and humble,
Subdued, bearing his final body:
He is the one I call a brahmin.  

32. Who, like the rain on lotus leaves,
Or mustard seed on the point of an awl,
Clings not at all to sensual pleasures:
He is the one I call a brahmin. 

 33. Who knows right here within himself
The destruction of all suffering,
With burden lowered, and detached:
He is the one I call a brahmin.  

34. Who with deep understanding, wise,
Can tell the path from the not-path
And has attained the goal supreme:
He is the one I call a brahmin.  

35. Aloof alike from householders
And those gone into homelessness,
Who wanders without home or wish:
He is the one I call a brahmin.  

36. Who has laid aside the rod
Against all beings frail or bold,
Who does not kill or have them killed:
He is the one I call a brahmin.  

37. Who is unopposed among opponents,
Peaceful among those given to violence,
Who does not cling among those who cling:
He is the one I call a brahmin.  

38. Who has dropped all lust and hate,
Dropped conceit and contempt,
Like mustard seed on the point of an awl:
He is the one I call a brahmin. [121]  

39. Who utters speech free from harshness,
Full of meaning, ever truthful,
Which does not offend anyone:
He is the one I call a brahmin.  

40. Who in the world will never take
What is not given, long or short,
Small or big or fair or foul:
He is the one I call a brahmin.  

41. Who has no more inner yearnings
Regarding this world and the next,
Who lives unyearning and detached:
He is the one I call a brahmin.  

42. Who has no more indulgences
No more perplexity since he knows;
Who has gained firm footing in the Deathless:
He is the one I call a brahmin.  

43. Who has transcended all ties here
Of both merit and evil deeds,
Is sorrowless, stainless, and pure:
He is the one I call a brahmin.  

44. Who, pure as the spotless moon,
Is clear and limpid, and in whom
Delight and being have been destroyed:
He is the one I call a brahmin.  

45. Who has passed beyond the swamp,
The mire, saṁsāra, all delusion,
Who has crossed to the further shore
And meditates within the jhānas,
Is unperturbed and unperplexed,
Attained Nibbāna through no clinging:
He is the one I call a brahmin.  

46. Who has abandoned sensual pleasures
And wanders here in homelessness
With sense desires and being destroyed:
He is the one I call a brahmin.  

47. Who has abandoned craving too,
And wanders here in homelessness,
With craving and being both destroyed:
He is the one I call a brahmin.  

48. Who leaves behind all human bonds
And has cast off the bonds of heaven,
Detached from all bonds everywhere:
He is the one I call a brahmin.  

49. Who leaves behind delight and discontent,
Who is cool and acquisitionless,
The hero who has transcended the whole world:
He is the one I call a brahmin. [122]  

50. Who knows how beings pass away
To reappear in many a mode,
Unclutching he, sublime, awake:
He is the one I call a brahmin.  

51. Whose destination is unknown
To gods, to spirits, and to men,
An arahant with taints destroyed:
He is the one I call a brahmin.  

52. Who has no impediments at all,
Before, behind, or in the middle,
Who is unimpeded and clings no more:
He is the one I call a brahmin.  

53. The herd’s leader, perfected hero,
The great seer whose victory is won,
Unperturbed, cleansed, awakened:
He is the one I call a brahmin.  

54. Who knows his manifold past lives
And sees the heavens and states of woe,
Who has reached the destruction of birth:
He is the one I call a brahmin.

§ 12.  
55. “For name and clan are assigned
As mere designations in the world;
Originating in conventions,
They are assigned here and there.  

56. For those who do not know this fact,
Wrong views have long underlain their hearts;
Not knowing, they declare to us:
‘One is a brahmin by birth.’  

57. One is not a brahmin by birth,
Nor by birth a non-brahmin.
By action is one a brahmin,
By action is one a non-brahmin.  

58. For men are farmers by their acts,905
And by their acts are craftsmen too;
And men are merchants by their acts,
And by their acts are servants too.  
[905:- MA: By the present volitional action which accomplishes the work of farming, etc.]


59. And men are robbers by their acts,
And by their acts are soldiers too;
And men are chaplains by their acts,
And by their acts are rulers too. [123]

13.  
60. “So that is how the truly wise
See action as it really is,
Seers of dependent origination,
Skilled in action and its results.906   
[906:- With this verse the word “kamma” undergoes a shift in meaning signalled by the term “dependent origination.” “Kamma” here no longer means simply  present action determining one’s social status, but action in the special sense of a
force binding beings to the round of existence. This same line of thought  becomes even clearer in the next verse.]


61. Action makes the world go round,
Action makes this generation turn.
Living beings are bound by action
Like the chariot wheel by the linchpin.  

62. Asceticism, the holy life,
Self-control and inner training—
By this one becomes a brahmin,
In this supreme brahminhood lies.907    
[907:- This verse and the following one again refer to the arahant. Here, however,  the contrast is not between the arahant as the one made holy by his actions and  the born brahmin unworthy of his designation, but between the arahant as the
one liberated from the bondage of action and result and all other beings who  remain tied by their actions to the wheel of birth and death.]


63. One possessing the triple knowledge,
Peaceful, with being all destroyed:
Know him thus, O Vāseṭṭha,
As Brahmā and Sakka for those who understand.”

When this was said, the brahmin students Vāseṭṭha and Bhāradvāja said to the Blessed One:

“Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama!…From today let Master Gotama remember us as lay followers who have gone to him for refuge for life.”

113 The Skilled Man

MN 03-02-03 Sappurisa Sutta

Exposition by Ven Ajahn Brahmvamso

§ 1.THUS HAVE I HEARD.
On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Sāvatthī in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.”—“Venerable sir,” they replied.
The Blessed One said this:

§ 2 “Bhikkhus, I shall teach you the character of a skillful person and the character of an unskillful person.1064
Listen and attend closely to what I shall say.”—
“Yes, venerable sir,” the bhikkhus replied.
The Blessed One said this:

[1064: Sappurisa-dhamma; asappurisa-dhamma]

§ 3 “Bhikkhus, what is the character of an unskillful person?

Here an unskillful person who has gone forth from an aristocratic family considers thus:
‘I have gone forth from an aristocratic family; but these other bhikkhus have not gone forth from aristocratic families. ’

So he praises himself and disparages others because of his aristocratic family.
This is the character of an unskillful person.

“But a skillful person considers thus:
‘It is not because of one’s aristocratic family, that states of craving, intolerance, or delusion are destroyed. Even though someone may not have gone forth from an aristocratic family, yet if he has entered upon the way that accords with the Dhamma, entered upon the proper way of eightfold path, [38] and conducts himself according to the Dhamma, he should be honoured for that, he should be praised for that.’
So, putting the practice of the way first, he neither lauds himself nor disparages others because of his aristocratic family.
This is the character of a skillful person.

§4- §6 . “Moreover, an unskillful person who has gone forth from a great family…
from a wealthy family…
from an influential family considers thus:
‘I have gone forth from an influential family; but these other bhikkhus have not gone forth from influential families. ’
So he lauds himself and disparages others because of his influential family.
This too is the character of an unskillful person

“But a skillful person considers thus:
It is not because of one’s influential family that states of greed, hatred, or delusion are destroyed. Even though someone may not have gone forth from an influential family, yet if he has entered upon the way that accords with the Dhamma, entered upon the proper way, and conducts himself according to the Dhamma, he should be honoured for that, he should be praised for that.
So, putting the practice of the way first, he neither lauds himself nor disparages others because of his influential family.
This too is the character of a skillful person.

§7 “Moreover, an unskillful person who is well known and famous, considers thus:
‘I am well known and famous; but these other bhikkhus are unknown and of no account.’
So he lauds himself and disparages others because of his renown.
This too is the character of an unskillful person.

“But a skillful person considers thus:
It is not because of one’s renown that states of greed, hatred, or delusion are destroyed. Even though someone may not be well known and famous, yet if he has entered upon the way that accords with the Dhamma, entered upon the proper way, and conducts himself according to the
Dhamma, he should be honoured for that, he should be praised for that.

So, putting the practice of the way first, he neither lauds himself nor disparages others because of his renown. This too is the character of a skillful person. [39]

§8 “Moreover, an unskillful person who gains robes, almsfood, resting places, and requisites of medicine considers thus: ‘I gain robes, almsfood, resting places, and requisites of medicine; but these other bhikkhus do not gain these things.’

So he lauds himself and disparages others because of gain.
This too is the character of an unskillful person.

“But a skillful person considers thus:
It is not because of gain that states of greed, hatred, or delusion are destroyed. Even though someone has no gain, yet if he has entered upon the way that accords with the Dhamma, entered upon the proper way, and conducts himself according to the Dhamma, he should be honoured for that, he should be praised for that.’

So, putting the practice of the way first, he neither lauds himself nor disparages others because of gain.
This too is the character of a skillful person.

§ 9. “Moreover, an untrue man who is learned…
§ 10. who is expert in the Discipline…[40]…
§ 11. who is a preacher of the Dhamma…
§ 12 .who is a forest dweller…
§ 13 .who is a refuse-rag wearer…[41]…
§ 14. an almsfood eater…
§ 15. a tree-root dweller…
§ 16 .…a charnel-ground dweller…
§ 17. an open-air dweller…
§ 18. a continual sitter…
§ 19. an any bed dweller…. an open-air dweller…a continual sitter…an any-bed user…
§ 20. a one-session eater considers thus:
‘I am a one-session eater; but these other bhikkhus are not one-session eaters.’1065

[1065:- These are nine of the thirteen ascetic practices discussed in Vsm II. The “continual sitter” (nesajjika) observes the practice of never lying down but of sleeping in the sitting posture]

So he lauds himself and disparages others because of his being a one-session eater.
This too is the character of an unskillful person.

“But a skillful person considers thus:
‘It is not because of being a one-session eater that states of greed, hatred, or delusion are destroyed. Even though someone may not be a one-session eater, yet if he has entered upon the way that accords with the Dhamma, entered upon the proper way, and conducts himself according to the Dhamma, he should be honoured for that, he should be praised for that.’

So, putting the practice of the way first, he neither lauds himself nor disparages others because of his being a one-session eater.
This too is the character of a skillful person.

§21 .“Moreover, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, an untrue man enters upon and abides in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. He considers thus:
‘I have gained the attainment of the first jhāna; but these other bhikkhus have not gained the attainment of the first jhāna.’

So he lauds himself and disparages others because of his attainment of the first jhāna.
This too is the character of an unskillful person.

“But a skillful person considers thus:
‘Non-ownership even with the experience of the first jhāna has been declared by the Blessed One; for in whatever way they conceive, the fact is ever other than that.’1066 [43]

[1066:- MA explains “non-identification” (atammayat̄a, (DOWNLOAD ) lit. “not consisting of that”) as the absence of craving. However, the context suggests that the absence of conceit may be the meaning. The statement “for in whatever way they conceive, the fact is ever other than that” (yena yena hi maññanti tato taṁ hoti aññathā) is a philosophical riddle appearing also at Sn 588, Sn 757, and Ud 3:10. Though MA is silent, the Ud̄na commentary (to Ud 3:10) explains it to mean that in whatever way worldly people conceive any of the five aggregates—as self or self’s belonging, etc.—the thing conceived turns out to be other than the aspect ascribed to it: it is not self or self’s belonging, not “I” or “mine.”]

So, putting non-identification first, he neither lauds himself nor disparages others because of the experience of the first jhāna.
This too is the character of a skillful person.

§ 22. “Moreover, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, an unskillful person enters upon and abides in the second jhāna…
So, putting non-ownership first, he neither lauds himself nor disparages others because of his attainment of the second jhāna.
This too is the character of a skillful person.

§ 23. With the fading away as well of rapture…he enters upon and abides in the third jhāna…
So, putting non-ownership first, he neither lauds himself nor disparages others because of experiencing of the third jhāna.
This too is the character of a skillful person.

§ 24. With the abandoning of pleasure and pain…he enters upon and abides in the fourth jhāna…So, putting non-ownership first, he neither lauds himself nor disparages others because of the experience of the fourth jhāna.
This too is the character of a skillful person.

§ 25 . “Moreover, with the complete surmounting of perceptions of form, with the disappearance of perceptions of sensory impact, with non-attention to perceptions of diversity, aware that ‘space is infinite,’ an untrue man enters upon and abides in the base of infinite space…

§ 26. “Moreover, by completely surmounting the base of infinite space, aware that ‘consciousness is indefinite,’ an unskillful person enters upon and abides in the base of indefinite consciousness……

§ 27 . “Moreover, by completely surmounting the base of indefinite consciousness, aware that ‘there is nothing,’ an unskillful person enters upon and abides in the base of nothingness…

§ 28. “Moreover, by completely surmounting the base of nothingness, an unskillful person enters upon and abides in the base of neither-perception-nor-nonperception.
He considers thus:
‘I have gained the experience of the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception; but these other bhikkhus have not experienced of the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. ’

So he lauds himself and disparages others because of experience of the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception.
This too is the character of an unskillful person.

“But a skillful person considers thus:
‘Non-ownership even with the experience of the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception has been declared by the Blessed One; for in whatever way they conceive, the fact is ever other than that.’
So, putting non-ownership first, he neither lauds himself nor disparages others because of the experience of the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception.
This too is the character of a skillful person. [45]

§ 29. “Moreover, by completely surmounting the base of neither-perception-nor-non- perception, a skillful person enters upon and abides in the cessation of perception and feeling1067. And his taints are destroyed by seeing with wisdom.

[1067:- It should be noted that there is no passage on the unskillful person entering the cessation of perception and feeling. Unlike the jhānas and immaterial attainments, which can be attained by worldlings, cessation is the domain exclusively of non-returners and arahants.]

This bhikkhu does not conceive anything, he does not conceive in regard to anything, he does not conceive in any way.”1068

[1068:- Na kiñci maññati, na kuhiñci maññati, na kenaci maññati.
This is a brief statement of the same situation described in full at MN 1.51–146. On “conceiving”
The Pali verb “conceives” (maññati), from the root man, “to think,” is often used in the Pali suttas to mean distortional thinking—thought that ascribes to its object characteristics and a significance derived not from the object itself, but from one’s own subjective imaginings. The cognitive distortion introduced by conceiving consists, in brief, in the intrusion of the egocentric perspective into the experience already slightly distorted by spontaneous perception. According to the commentaries, the activity of conceiving is governed by three defilements, which account for the different ways it comes to manifestation—craving (taṇh̄ ) , conceit (m̄na ), and views (dị̣hi).

MA paraphrases this text thus: “Having perceived earth with a perverted perception, the ordinary person afterwards conceives it—construes or
discriminates it—through the gross proliferating tendencies (papañca) of craving, conceit, and views, which are here called ‘conceivings. ’…He
apprehends it in diverse ways contrary [to reality].”
The four ways of conceiving (maññan̄): The Buddha shows that the conceiving of any object may occur in any of four ways, expressed by the text as a fourfold linguistic pattern: accusative, locative, ablative, and appropriative.
The primary significance of this modal pattern—enigmatic in the Pali as well—seems to be ontological. I take the pattern to represent the diverse ways in which the ordinary person attempts to give positive being to his imagined sense of egohood by positing, below the threshold of reflection, a relationship between himself as the subject of cognition and the perceived phenomenon as its object.

According to the fourfold pattern given, this relationship may be one either of direct identification (“he conceives X”), or of inherence (“he conceives in X”), or of contrast or derivation (“he conceives from X”), or of simple appropriation (“he conceives X to be ‘mine’”).
But care is needed in interpreting these phrases. The Pali does not supply any direct object for the second and third modes, and this suggests that the process at work in conceiving proceeds from a deeper and more general level than that involved in the forming of an explicit view of self, as described for example at MN 2.8 or MN 44.7. The activity of conceiving thus seems to comprise the entire range of subjectively tinged cognition, from the impulses and thoughts in which the sense of personal identity is still inchoate to elaborate intellectual structures in which it has been fully explicated.
Ñm, however, understands the implicit object of conceiving to be the percept itself, and accordingly translates: “having had from earth a percept of earth, he conceives [that to be] earth, he conceives [that to be] in earth, he conceives [that to be apart] from earth,” etc.
The fifth phrase, “he delights in X,” explicitly connects conceiving with craving, which is elsewhere said to “delight here and there.” This, moreover, hints at the danger in the worldling’s thought processes, since craving is pointed to by the Buddha as the origin of suffering.
MA gives prolific examples illustrating all the different modes of conceiving, and these clearly establish that the intended object of conceiving is the misplaced sense of egoity. ]

That is what the Blessed One said.

The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

077 Mahā Sakuludāyi Sutta

The Greater Discourse to Sakuludāyin

Sutta Exposition Talk 1 – Bhikku Bodi
Sutta Exposition Talk 2 – Bhikku Bodhi


§1. THUS HAVE I HEARD.
On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Rājagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary.

§ 2. Now on that occasion a number of well-known wanderers were staying at the Peacocks’ Sanctuary, the wanderers’ park—that is, Annabhāra, Varadhara, and the wanderer Sakuludāyin, as well as other well-known wanderers.

§3 . Then, when it was morning, the Blessed One dressed, and taking his bowl and outer robe, went into Rājagaha for alms. Then he thought: “It is still too early to wander for alms in Rājagaha. Suppose I went to the wanderer Sakuludāyin in the Peacocks’ Sanctuary, the wanderers’ park.”

§4. Then the Blessed One went to the Peacocks’ Sanctuary, the wanderers’ park.
Now on that occasion the wanderer Sakuludāyin was seated with a large assembly of wanderers who were making an uproar, loudly and noisily talking many kinds of pointless talk, such as talk of kings, robbers, ministers, armies, dangers, battles, food, drink, clothing, beds, garlands, perfumes, relatives, vehicles, villages, towns, cities, countries, women, heroes, streets, wells, the dead, trifles, the origin of the world, the origin of the sea, [514] whether things are so or are not so.

Then the wanderer Sakuludāyin saw the Blessed One coming in the distance. Seeing him, he quieted his own assembly thus:
Sirs, be quiet; sirs, make no noise. Here comes the recluse Gotama. This venerable one likes quiet and commends quiet. Perhaps if he finds our assembly a quiet one, he will think to join us.”
Then the wanderers became silent.

§5. The Blessed One went to the wanderer Sakuludāyin, who said to him:
Let the Blessed One come, venerable sir! Welcome to the Blessed One! It is longsince the Blessed One found an opportunity to come here. Let the Blessed One be seated; this seat is ready.

The Blessed One sat down on the seat made ready, and the wanderer Sakuludāyin took a low seat and sat down at one side. When he had done so, the Blessed One asked him:

“For what discussion are you sitting together here now, Udāyin?
And what was your discussion that was interrupted?”

§6. “Venerable sir, let be the discussion for which we are now sitting together here. The Blessed One can well hear about it later.

“In recent days, venerable sir, when recluses and brahmins of various sects have been gathering together and sitting together in the debating hall, this topic has arisen: ‘It is a gain for the people of Anga and Magadha, it is a great gain for the people of Anga and Magadha that these recluses and brahmins, heads of orders, heads of groups, teachers of groups, well-known and famous founders of sects regarded by many as saints, have come to spend the Rains at Rājagaha.

There is this Pūraṇa Kassapa, the head of an order, the head of a group, the teacher of a group, the well-known and famous founder of a sect regarded by many as a saint: he has come to spend the Rains at Rājagaha.

There is also this Makkhali Gosāla…
this Ajita Kesakambalin…
this Pakudha Kaccāyana…
this Sañjaya Belaṭṭhiputta…
this Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta, the head of an order, the head of a group, the teacher of a group, [3] the well-known and famous founder of a sect regarded by many as a saint: he too has come to spend the Rains at Rājagaha.

There is also this recluse Gotama, the head of an order, the head of a group, the teacher of a group, the well-known and famous founder of a sect regarded by many as a saint: he too has come to spend the Rains at Rājagaha.

Now among these worthy recluses and brahmins, heads of orders…regarded by many as saints, who is honoured, respected, revered, and venerated by his disciples? And how, honouring and respecting him, do they live in dependence on him?’

“Thereupon some said this: ‘This Pūraṇa Kassapa is the head of an order…
regarded by many as a saint, yet he is not honoured, respected, revered, and venerated by his disciples, nor do his disciples live in dependence on him, honouring and respecting him.

Once Pūraṇa Kassapa was teaching his Dhamma to an assembly of several hundred followers. Then a certain disciple of his made a noise thus:
Sirs, do not ask Pūraṇa Kassapa this question. He does not know that. We know that. Ask us that question. We will answer that for you, sirs.”

It happened that Pūraṇa Kassapa did not get his way, though he waved his arms and wailed:
“Be quiet, sirs, make no noise, sirs. They are not asking you, sirs. They are asking us. We will answer them.” Indeed, many of his disciples left him after refuting his doctrine thus:

“You do not understand this Dhamma and Discipline. I understand this Dhamma and Discipline. How could you understand this Dhamma and Discipline? Your way is wrong. My way is right. I am consistent. You are inconsistent. What should have been said first, you said last. What should have been said last, you said first. What you had so carefully thought up has been turned inside out. Your doctrine is refuted. You are proved wrong. Go and learn better, or disentangle yourself if you can!”

Thus Pūraṇa Kassapa is not honoured, respected, revered, and venerated by his disciples, nor do his disciples live in dependence on him, honouring and respecting him. Indeed, he is scorned by the scorn shown to his Dhamma.’ [4]

“And some said this: ‘This Makkhali Gosāla…
this Ajita Kesakambalin…
this Pakudha Kaccāyana…
this Sañjaya Belaṭṭhiputta…
this Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta is the head of an order…[but he] is not honoured, respected, revered, and venerated by his disciples, nor do his disciples live in dependence on him, honouring and respecting him. Indeed, he is scorned by the scorn shown to his Dhamma.’

“And some said this: ‘This recluse Gotama is the head of an order, the head of a group, the teacher of a group, the well-known and famous founder of a sect regarded by many as a saint. He is honoured, respected, revered, and venerated by his disciples, and his disciples live in dependence on him, honouring and respecting him.

Once the recluse Gotama was teaching his Dhamma to an assembly of several hundred followers and there a certain disciple of his cleared his throat. Thereupon one of his companions in the holy life nudged him with his knee [to indicate]: [5] “Be quiet, venerable sir, make no noise; the Blessed One, the Teacher, is teaching us the Dhamma.”

When the recluse Gotama is teaching the Dhamma to an assembly of several hundred followers, on that occasion there is no sound of his disciples’ coughing or clearing their throats. For then that large assembly is poised in expectancy:
“Let us hear the Dhamma the Blessed One is about to teach.”

Just as though a man were at a crossroads pressing out pure honey and a large group of people were poised in expectancy, so too, when the recluse Gotama is teaching the Dhamma to an assembly of several hundred followers, on that occasion there is no sound of his disciples’ coughing or clearing their throats. For then that large assembly is poised in expectancy: “Let us hear the Dhamma the Blessed One is about to teach.”

And even those disciples of his who fall out with their companions in the holy life and abandon
the training to return to the home life—even they praise the Master and the Dhamma and the Sangha; they blame themselves instead of others, saying:
“We were unlucky, we have little merit; for though we went forth into homelessness in such a well-proclaimed Dhamma, we were unable to live the perfect and pure holy life for the rest of our lives.”

Having become monastery attendants or lay followers, they undertake and observe the five precepts. Thus the recluse Gotama is honoured, respected, revered, and venerated by his disciples, and his disciples live in dependence on him, honouring and respecting him.’”

§ 7 “But, Udāyin, how many qualities do you see in me because of which my disciples honour, respect, revere, and venerate me, and live in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me?”

§ 8 “Venerable sir,
I see five qualities in the Blessed One because of which his disciples honour, respect, revere, and venerate him, and live in dependence on him, honouring and respecting him.

What are the five?

(i) .First, venerable sir, the Blessed One eats little and commends eating little; this I see as the first quality of the Blessed One because of which his disciples honour, respect, revere, and venerate him, and live in dependence on him, honouring and respecting him. [6]

(ii) .Again, venerable sir, the Blessed One is content with any kind of robe and commends contentment with any kind of robe; this I see as the second quality of the Blessed One…

(iii) .Again, venerable sir, the Blessed One is content with any kind of almsfood and commends contentment with any kind of almsfood; this I see as the third quality of the Blessed One…

(iv) .Again, venerable sir, the Blessed One is content with any kind of resting place and commends contentment with any kind of resting place; this I see as the fourth quality of the Blessed One…

(v) .Again, venerable sir, the Blessed One is secluded and commends seclusion; this I see as the fifth quality of the Blessed One…

Venerable sir, these are the five qualities I see in the Blessed One because of which his disciples honour, respect, revere, and venerate him, and live in dependence on him, honouring and respecting him.”

§ 9. “Suppose, Udāyin, my disciples honoured, respected, revered, and venerated me, and lived in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me, with the thought:
The recluse Gotama eats little and commends eating little.’

Now there are disciples of mine who live on a cupful or half a cupful of food, a bilva fruit’s or half a bilva fruit’s quantity of food, [7] while I sometimes eat the full contents of my almsbowl or even more. So if my disciples honoured me…with the thought:
‘The recluse Gotama eats little and commends eating little,’
then those disciples of mine who live on a cupful of food…should not honour, respect, revere, and venerate me for this quality, nor should they live in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me.

. “Suppose, Udāyin, my disciples honoured, respected, revered, and venerated me, and lived in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me, with the thought:
The recluse Gotama is content with any kind of robe and commends contentment with any kind of robe.’

Now there are disciples of mine who are refuse-rag wearers, wearers of coarse robes; they collect rags from the charnel ground, rubbish heaps, or shops, make them into patched robes, and wear them.
But I sometimes wear robes given by householders, robes so fine that pumpkin hair is coarse in comparison.

So if my disciples honoured me…with the thought:
The recluse Gotama is content with any kind of robe and commends contentment with any kind of robe,’ then those disciples of mine who are refuse-rag wearers, wearers of coarse robes…should not honour, respect, revere, and venerate me for this quality, nor should they live in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me.

“Suppose, Udāyin, my disciples honoured, respected, revered, and venerated me, and lived in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me, with the thought:
The recluse Gotama is content with any kind of almsfood and commends contentment with any kind of almsfood.

Now there are disciples of mine who are almsfood eaters, who go on unbroken almsround from house to house, who delight in gathering their food; when they have entered among the houses they will not consent even when invited to sit down.

But I sometimes eat on invitation meals of choice rice [8] and many sauces and curries.

So if my disciples honoured me…with the thought: ‘The recluse Gotama is content with any kind of almsfood and commends contentment with any kind of almsfood,’
then those disciples of mine who are alms food eaters…should not honour, respect, revere, and venerate me for this quality, nor should they live in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me.

. “Suppose, Udāyin, my disciples honoured, respected, revered, and venerated me, and lived in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me, with the thought:
The recluse Gotama is content with any kind of resting place and commends contentment with any kind of resting place.’

Now there are disciples of mine who are tree-root dwellers and open-air dwellers, who do not use a roof for eight months [of the year], while I sometimes live in gabled mansions plastered within and without, protected against the wind, secured by door bolts, with shuttered windows. So if my disciples honoured me…with the thought:
The recluse Gotama is content with any kind of resting place and commends contentment with any kind of resting place,
then those disciples of mine who are tree-root dwellers and open-air dwellers…should not honour, respect, revere, and venerate me for this quality, nor should they live in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me.

“Suppose, Udāyin, my disciples honoured, respected, revered, and venerated me, and lived in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me, with the thought:
The recluse Gotama is secluded and commends seclusion.’

Now there are disciples of mine who are forest dwellers, dwellers in remote resting places, who live withdrawn in remote jungle-thicket resting places and return to the midst of the Sangha once each half-month for the recitation of the Pātimokkha.

But I sometimes live surrounded by bhikkhus and bhikkhunīs, by men and women lay followers, by kings and kings’ ministers, by other sectarians and their disciples. So if my disciples honoured me…with the thought:
The recluse Gotama is secluded and commends seclusion,’ [9]
then those disciples of mine who are forest dwellers…should not honour, respect, revere, and venerate me for this quality, nor should they live in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me.

Thus, Udāyin, it is not because of these five qualities that my disciples honour, respect, revere, and venerate me, and live in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me.

§ 10. “However, Udāyin, there are five other qualities because of which my disciples honour, respect, revere, and venerate me, and live in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me.

What are the five?

§ 11. “Here, Udāyin, my disciples esteem me for the higher virtue thus:
‘The recluse Gotama is virtuous, he possesses the supreme aggregate of virtue.’

This is the first quality because of which my disciples honour, respect, revere, and venerate me, and live in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me.

§ 12. “Again, Udāyin, my disciples esteem me for my excellent knowledge and vision thus:
‘When the recluse Gotama says “I know,” he truly knows;
when he says “I see,” he truly sees.

The recluse Gotama teaches the Dhamma through direct knowledge, not without direct knowledge; he teaches the Dhamma with a sound basis, not without a sound basis; he teaches the Dhamma in a convincing manner, not in an unconvincing manner.’

This is the second quality because of which [10] my disciples honour me…

§ 13. “Again, Udāyin, my disciples esteem me for the higher wisdom thus:
‘The recluse Gotama is wise; he possesses the supreme aggregate of wisdom. It is impossible that he should not foresee the implications of an assertion761 or that he should not be able to confute with reasons the current doctrines of others.’

What do you think, Udāyin?
Would my disciples, knowing and seeing thus, break in and interrupt me?”
—“No, venerable sir.”—“I do not expect instruction
from my disciples; invariably, it is my disciples who expect instruction from me.
This is the third quality because of which my disciples honour me…

§ 13. “Again, Udāyin, my disciples esteem me for the higher wisdom thus:
‘The recluse Gotama is wise; he possesses the supreme aggregate of wisdom. It is impossible that he should not foresee the implications of an assertion761 or that he should not be able to confute with reasons the current doctrines of others.’

What do you think, Udāyin?
Would my disciples, knowing and seeing thus, break in and interrupt me?”—
“No, venerable sir.”—
“I do not expect instruction from my disciples; invariably, it is my disciples who expect instruction from me.

This is the third quality because of which my disciples honour me…

[761:- Anāgataṁ vādapathaṁ. Ñm had translated: “a future logical consequence of an assertion.” The meaning seems to be that the Buddha understands all the unexpressed implications of his own doctrine as well as of his opponents’ doctrines.]

§ 14 “Again, Udāyin, when my disciples have met with suffering and become victims of suffering, prey to suffering, they come to me and ask me about the noble truth of suffering. Being asked, I explain to them the noble truth of suffering, and I satisfy their minds with my explanation.

They ask me about the noble truth of the origin of suffering…
about the noble truth of the cessation of suffering…
about the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering.

Being asked, I explain to them the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering, and I satisfy their minds with my explanation. This is the fourth quality [11] because of which my disciples honour me…

1. The Four Foundations of Mindfulness

§ 15 “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to develop the four foundations of mindfulness. 762

[762:- Explained in full in MN 10. The first seven groups of “wholesome states” (§§15–21) constitute the thirty-seven aids to enlightenment (bodhipakkhiyā dhammā).]

  • Here a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body as a body, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, having put away covetousness and grief for the world.
  • He abides contemplating feelings as feelings…
  • He abides contemplating mind as mind…
  • He abides contemplating mind-objects as mindobjects, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, having put away covetousness and grief for the world. And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.763

[763:- Abhiññāvosānapāramippatta. MA explains as the attainment of arahantship.
This may be the only sense that the word pāramı̄ bears in the four Nikāyas. In the later Theravāda literature, beginning perhaps with such works as the Buddhavaṁsa, this word comes to signify the perfect virtues that a bodhisatta must fulfil over many lives in order to attain Buddhahood. In that context it corresponds to the pāramitā of the Mahāyāna literature, though the numerical lists of virtues overlap only in part.]

2. The Four Right Kinds of Striving

§ 16 “Again, Udāyin,
I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to develop the four right kinds of striving.

  • Here a bhikkhu awakens zeal for the non-arising of unarisen evil unwholesome states, and he makes effort, arouses energy, exerts his mind, and strives.
  • He awakens zeal for the abandoning of arisen evil unwholesome states…
  • He awakens zeal for the arising of unarisen wholesome states…
  • He awakens zeal for the continuance, non-disappearance, strengthening, increase, and fulfilment by development of arisen wholesome states, and he makes effort, arouses energy, exerts his mind, and strives.

And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

3. The Four Bases for Spiritual Power

§ 17. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to develop the four bases for spiritual power.

  • Here a bhikkhu develops the basis for spiritual power consisting in concentration due to zeal and determined striving.
  • He develops the basis for spiritual power consisting in concentration due to energy and determined striving.
  • He develops the basis for spiritual power consisting in concentration due to [purity of] mind and determined striving.
  • He develops the basis for spiritual power consisting in concentration due to investigation and determined striving.

And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

4. The Five Faculties

§ 18 “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to develop the five spiritual faculties.

  • Here a bhikkhu develops the faculty of faith, which leads to peace, leads to enlightenment. He develops the faculty of energy
  • a bhikkhu develops the faculty of mindfulness
  • a bhikkhu develops the faculty of stillness.
  • a bhikkhu develops the faculty of wisdom, which leads to peace, leads to enlightenment.

And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

5. The Five Powers

§ 19. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to develop the five powers.

  • Here a bhikkhu develops the power of faith, which leads to peace, leads to enlightenment.
  • He develops the power of energy…
  • …..the power of mindfulness
  • ….…the power of concentration
  • ……the power of wisdom, which leads to peace, leads to enlightenment.

And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

6. The Seven Enlightenment Factors

§ 20. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to develop the seven enlightenment factors.

  • Here a bhikkhu develops the mindfulness enlightenment factor, which is supported by seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, and results in relinquishment.
  • He develops the investigation-of-states enlightenment factor…
  • the energy enlightenment factor…
  • the rapture enlightenment factor…
  • the tranquility enlightenment factor…
  • the stillness enlightenment factor…
  • the equanimity enlightenment factor, which is supported by seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, and results in relinquishment.

And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

7. The Noble Eightfold Path

§21. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to develop the Noble Eightfold Path.

Here a bhikkhu develops right view,
right intention,
right speech,
right action,
right livelihood,
right effort,
right mindfulness, and
right concentration.

And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

8. The Eight Liberations

§ 22 “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to develop the eight liberations.764

[764:- MA explains liberation (vimokkha) here as meaning the mind’s full (but temporary) release from the opposing states and its full (but temporary) release by delighting in the object. The first liberation is the attainment of the four jhānas using a kasi˚a (see §24 and n.768) derived from a coloured object in one’s own body; the second is the attainment of the jhānas using a kasi˚a derived from an external object; the third can be understood as the attainment of the jhānas through either a very pure and beautiful coloured kasi˚a or the four brahmavihāras . The remaining liberations are the immaterial attainments and the attainment of cessation.]

  • Possessed of material form, one sees forms: this is the first liberation.
  • Not perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally: this is the second liberation.
  • One is resolved only upon the beautiful: this is the third liberation. [13]
  • With the complete surmounting of perceptions of form, with the disappearance of perceptions of sensory impact, with non-attention to perceptions of diversity, aware that ‘space is infinite,’ one enters upon and abides in the base of infinite space: this is the fourth liberation.
  • By completely surmounting the base of infinite space, aware that ‘consciousness is infinite,’ one enters upon and abides in the base of infinite consciousness: this is the fifth liberation.
  • By completely surmounting the base of infinite consciousness, aware that ‘there is nothing,’ one enters upon and abides in the base of nothingness: this is the sixth liberation.
  • By completely surmounting the base of nothingness, one enters upon and abides in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception: this is the seventh liberation.
  • By completely surmounting the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, one enters upon and abides in the cessation of perception and feeling: this is the eighth liberation.

And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

9. The Eight Bases for Transcendence

§ 23. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to develop the eight bases for transcendence.765

[765:- MA explains that these are called bases of transcendence (abhibhāyatana) because they transcend (abhibhavati, overcome) the opposing states and the objects, the former through the application of the appropriate antidote, the latter
through the arising of knowledge]

  • Perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally, limited, fair and ugly; by transcending them, one perceives thus: ‘I know, I see.’ This is the first base for transcendence .766

[766:- MA: The meditator does the preliminary work on an internal form—
e.g., the blue of the eyes for a blue-kasina, the skin for a yellow kasina, the blood for a red-kasina, the teeth for a white-kasina—but the sign of stillness (nimitta) arises externally.

The “transcending” of the forms is the attainment of absorption together with the arising of the sign. The perception “I know, I see” is the advertence (ābhoga) that occurs after he emerges from the attainment, not within the attainment. The second base of transcendence differs from the first only by the extension of the sign from limited to unlimited dimensions.]

  • Perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally, immeasurable, fair and ugly; by transcending them, one perceives thus: ‘I know, I see.’ This is the second base for transcendence.
  • Not perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally, limited, fair and ugly; by transcending them, one perceives thus: ‘I know, I see.’ This is the third base for transcendence .767

[767:- MA: The third and fourth bases involve preliminary work done on an external form and the arising of the sign externally. The fifth through eighth bases differ from the third and fourth in the superior purity and luminosity of their colours.]

  • Not perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally, immeasurable, fair and ugly; by transcending them, one perceives thus: ‘I know, I see.’ This is the fourth base for transcendence.
  • Not perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally, blue, of blue colour, blue in appearance, with blue luminosity. Just like a flax flower, which is blue, of blue colour, blue in appearance, with blue luminosity, or just like Benares cloth smoothened on both sides, which is blue, of blue colour, blue in appearance, with blue luminosity; so too, not perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally…with blue luminosity; by transcending them, one perceives thus: ‘I know, I see.’ This is the fifth [14] base for transcendence.
  • Not perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally, yellow, of yellow colour, yellow in appearance, with yellow luminosity. Just like a kaṇṇikāra flower, which is yellow, of yellow colour, yellow in appearance, with yellow luminosity, or just like Benares cloth smoothened on both sides, which is yellow, of yellow colour, yellow in appearance, with yellow luminosity; so too, not perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally…with yellow luminosity; by transcending them, one perceives thus: ‘I know, I see.’ This is the sixth base for transcendence.
  • Not perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally, red, of red colour, red in appearance, with red luminosity. Just like a hibiscus flower, which is red, of red colour, red in appearance, with red luminosity, or just like Benares cloth smoothened on both sides, which is red, of red colour, red in appearance, with red luminosity; so too, not perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally…with red luminosity; by transcending them, one perceives thus: ‘I know, I see.’ This is the seventh base for transcendence.
  • Not perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally, white, of white colour, white in appearance, with white luminosity. Just like the morning star, which is white, of white colour, white in appearance, with white luminosity, or just like Benares cloth smoothened on both sides, which is white, of white colour, white in appearance, with white luminosity; so too, not perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally…with white luminosity; by transcending them, one perceives thus: ‘I know, I see.’ This is the eighth base for transcendence.

And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

10. The Ten Kasiṇas

§ 24. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to develop the ten kasiṇa bases.768 One contemplates the earthkasiṇa above, below, and across, undivided and immeasurable.

[768:- The kasiṇa is a meditation object derived from a physical device that provides a support for acquiring the inwardly visualised sign. Thus, for example, a disk made of clay can be used as the preliminary object for practising the earth-kasina, a bowl of water for practising the water kasina. The kasinas are explained in detail in Vsm IV and V. There, however, the space-kasina is restricted to limited space, and the consciousness-kasina is replaced by the light kasina..]

Another contemplates the water-kasiṇa…
Another contemplates the fire-kasiṇa…
Another contemplates the air-kasiṇa…
Another contemplates the blue-kasiṇa…
Another contemplates the yellow-kasiṇa…
Another contemplates the red-kasiṇa…
Another contemplates the white-kasiṇa…
Another contemplates the space-kasiṇa…
Another contemplates the consciousness-kasiṇa [15] above, below, and across, undivided and immeasurable. And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the perfection and consummation of direct knowledge.

11. The Four Jhānas

§ 25. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to develop the four jhānas.

Here, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion.

He makes the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion.769

[769:- The similes for the jhānas also appear in MN 39, as do the similes for the last three types of knowledge at §§34–36].

Just as a skilled bath man or a bath man’s apprentice heaps bath powder in a metal basin and, sprinkling it gradually with water, kneads it till the moisture wets his ball of bath powder, soaks it and pervades it inside and out, yet the ball itself does not ooze; so too, a bhikkhu makes the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion.

§ 26. “Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second jhāna, which has self-confidence and singleness of mind without applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of concentration. He makes the rapture and pleasure born of concentration drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the rapture and pleasure born of concentration.

Just as though there were a lake whose waters welled up from below and it had no inflow from east, west, north, or south [16] and would not be replenished from time to time by showers of rain, then the cool fount of water welling up in the lake would make the cool water drench, steep, fill, and pervade the lake, so that there would be no part of the whole lake unpervaded by cool water; so too, a bhikkhu makes the rapture and pleasure born of concentration drench, steep, fill,
and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the rapture and pleasure born of concentration.

§ 27. “Again, with the fading away as well of rapture, a bhikkhu abides in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling pleasure with the body, he enters upon and abides in the third jhāna, on account of which noble ones announce:

‘He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.’ He makes the pleasure divested of rapture drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the pleasure divested of rapture.

Just as in a pond of blue or red or white lotuses, some lotuses that are born and grow in the water thrive immersed in the water without rising out of it, and cool water drenches, steeps, fills, and pervades them to their tips and their roots, so that there is no part of all those lotuses unpervaded by cool water; so too, a bhikkhu makes the pleasure divested of rapture drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the pleasure divested of rapture.

§ 28. “Again, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jhāna, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. He sits pervading this body with a pure bright mind, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the pure bright mind.

Just as though a man were sitting covered from the head down with a white cloth, so that there would be no part of his whole body not covered by the white cloth; so too, a bhikkhu sits pervading this body with a pure bright mind, so that there is no part of his whole body [17] unpervaded by the pure bright mind. And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

12. Insight Knowledge

§ 29. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to understand thus :770
‘This body of mine, made of material form, consisting of the four great elements, procreated by a mother and father, and built up out of boiled rice and porridge, is subject to impermanence, to being worn and rubbed away, to dissolution and disintegration, and this consciousness of mine is supported by it and bound up with it.’

[770:- §§29–36 describe eight varieties of higher knowledge which, in the Sāmaññaphala Sutta, are designated superior fruits of recluseship.]

Suppose there were a beautiful beryl gem of purest water, eight-faceted, well cut, clear and limpid, possessed of all good qualities, and through it a blue, yellow, red, white, or brown thread would be strung.

Then a man with good sight, taking it in his hand, might review it thus:
‘This is a beautiful beryl gem of purest water, eight-faceted, well cut, clear and limpid, possessed of all good qualities, and through it is strung a blue, yellow, red, white, or brown thread.’

So too, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to understand thus:
This body of mine…is subject to impermanence, to being worn and rubbed away, to dissolution and disintegration, and this consciousness of mine is supported by it and bound up with it.

And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

13. The Mind-Made Body

§ 30. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to create from this body another body having form, mind-made, with all its limbs, lacking no faculty.

Just as though a man were to pull out a reed from its sheath and think thus:
‘This is the sheath, this is the reed; the sheath is one, the reed is another; it is from the sheath that the reed has been pulled out’;

or just as though a man were to pull out a sword from its scabbard and think thus: ‘This is the sword, this is the scabbard; the sword is one, the scabbard another; it is from the scabbard that the sword has been pulled out’; [18]

or just as though a man were to pull a snake out of its slough and think thus: ‘This is the snake, this is the slough; the snake is one, the slough another; it is from the slough that the snake has been pulled out.’

So too, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to create from this body another body having form, mind-made, with all its limbs, lacking no faculty. And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

14. The Kinds of Supernormal Power

§ 31 . “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to wield the various kinds of supernormal power:

having been one, they become many; having been many, they become one; they appear and vanish; they go unhindered through walls, through enclosures, through mountains, as though through space; they dive in and out of the earth as though it were water; they walk on water without sinking as though it were earth; seated cross-legged, they travel in space like birds; with their hands they touch and stroke the moon and sun so powerful and mighty; they wield bodily mastery even as far as the Brahma-world. Just as a skilled potter or his apprentice might create and fashion out of well-prepared clay any shape of pot he wished; or just as a skilled ivory worker or his apprentice might create and fashion out of well-prepared ivory any ivory work of art he wished; or just as a skilled goldsmith or his apprentice might create and fashion out of well-prepared gold any gold work of art he wished; so too, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to wield the various kinds of supernormal power…[19]…they wield bodily mastery even as far as the Brahma-world. And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

15. The Divine Ear Element

§ 32. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way whereby with the divine ear element, which is purified and surpasses the human, they hear both kinds of sounds, the divine and the human, those that are far as well as near. Just as a vigorous trumpeter might make himself heard without difficulty in the four quarters; so too, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way whereby with the divine ear element…far as well as near. And thereby many disciples of mine
abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

16. Understanding the Minds of Others

§ 33. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to understand the minds of other beings, of other persons, having encompassed them with their own minds. They understand a mind affected by lust as affected by lust and a mind unaffected by lust as unaffected by lust; they understand a mind affected by hate as affected by hate and a mind unaffected by hate as unaffected by hate; they understand a mind affected by delusion as affected by delusion and a mind unaffected by delusion as unaffected by delusion; they understand a contracted mind as contracted and a distracted mind as distracted; they understand an exalted mind as exalted and an unexalted mind as unexalted; they understand a surpassed mind as surpassed and an unsurpassed mind as unsurpassed; they understand a concentrated mind as concentrated and an unconcentrated mind as unconcentrated; they understand a liberated mind as liberated and an unliberated mind as unliberated. Just as a man or a woman—young, youthful, and fond of ornaments—on viewing the image of his or her own face in a clean bright mirror or in a bowl of clear water, would know if there were a spot thus: ‘There is a spot,’ [20] or would know if there were no spot thus: ‘There is no spot’; so too, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to understand…an unliberated mind as unliberated. And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

17. The Recollection of Past Lives

§ 34 .“Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to recollect their manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two births, three births, four births, five births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty births, a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births, many aeons of world contraction, many aeons of world-expansion, many aeons of world-contraction and expansion: ‘There I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my lifeterm; and passing away from there, I reappeared elsewhere; and there too I was so named…and passing away from there, I reappeared here.’

Thus with their aspects and particulars they recollect their manifold past lives. Just as a man might go from his own village to another village and then back again to his own village. He might think: ‘I went from my own village to that village, and there I stood in such a way, sat in such a way, spoke in such a way, kept silent in such a way; and from that village I went to that other village and there [21] I stood in such a way…kept silent in such a way; and from that village I came back again to my own village.’ So too, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to recollect their manifold lives…Thus with their aspects and particulars they recollect their manifold past lives. And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

18. The Divine Eye

§ 35. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way whereby with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, they see beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate. They understand how beings pass on according to their actions thus:
‘These worthy beings who were ill conducted in body, speech, and mind, revilers of noble ones, wrong in their views, giving effect to wrong view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reappeared in a state of deprivation, in a bad destination, in perdition, even in hell; but these worthy beings who were well conducted in body, speech, and mind, not revilers of noble ones, right in their views, giving effect to right view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reappeared in a good destination, even in the heavenly world.’

Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, they see beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and they understand how beings pass on according to their actions. Just as though there were two houses with doors and a man with good sight standing there between them saw people entering the houses and coming out and passing to and fro.

So too, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way whereby with the divine eye…They understand how beings pass on according to their actions. And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge. [22]

19. The Destruction of the Taints

§ 36. “Again, Udāyin, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way whereby by realising for themselves with direct knowledge, they here and now enter upon and abide in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints. Just as if there were a lake in a mountain recess, clear, limpid, and undisturbed, so that a man with good sight standing on the bank could see shells, gravel, and pebbles, and also shoals of fish swimming about and resting. He might think: ‘There is this lake, clear, limpid, and undisturbed, and there are these shells, gravel, and pebbles, and also these shoals of fish swimming about and resting.’ So too, I have proclaimed to my disciples the way whereby by realising for themselves with direct knowledge, they here and now enter upon and abide in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints. And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.

§ 37 “This, Udāyin, is the fifth quality because of which my disciples honour, respect, revere, and venerate me, and live in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me.

§ 38. “These, Udāyin, are the five qualities because of which my disciples honour, respect, revere, and venerate me, and live in dependence on me, honouring and respecting me.”

That is what the Blessed One said. The wanderer Udāyin was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

108 Gopaka Moggallāna Sutta

this Sutta is one of the suttasa added after the great passing away of the Thathagatha. The venerable Ānanda explains how the Sangha maintains its unity and internal discipline after the passing away of the Buddha. and explains the ten quality of a member of sangha who should be respected, venerated, honored.

Bhikku Bodhi’s Sutta Exposition

§ 1. THUS HAVE I HEARD.
On one occasion the venerable Ānanda was living at Rājagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary, not long after the Blessed One had attained to final Nibbāna.1031

[1031:- MA says that after the Buddha’s relics had been distributed, Ven. Ānanda had come to Rājagaha for the recitation of the Dhamma (at the first GreatCouncil).]

§ 2. Now on that occasion King Ajātasattu Vedehiputta of Magadha, being suspicious of King Pajjota, was having Rājagaha fortified.1032

[1032:- King Pajjota was a friend of King Bimbisāra of Magadha, who had been killed by his son Ajātasattu. According to MA, Ajātasattuthought King Pajjota might seek to avenge his friend’s murder.]

§ 3. Then, when it was morning, the venerable Ānanda dressed, and taking his bowl and outer robe, went into Rājagaha for alms. Then the venerable Ānanda thought: “It is still too early to wander for alms in Rājagaha. Suppose I went to the brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna at his workplace.”

§ 4. So the venerable Ānanda went to the brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna at his workplace. The brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna saw the venerable Ānanda coming in the distance and said to him: “Let Master Ānanda come! Welcome to Master Ānanda! It is long since Master Ānanda found an opportunity to come here. Let Master Ānanda be seated; this seat is ready.” The venerable Ānanda sat down on the seat made ready. [8] The brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna took a low seat, sat down at one side, and asked the venerable Ānanda:

§ 5. “Master Ānanda, is there any single bhikkhu who possesses in each and every way all those qualities that were possessed by Master Gotama, accomplished and fully enlightened?”

“There is no single bhikkhu, brahmin, who possesses in each and every way all those qualities that were possessed by the Blessed One, accomplished and fully enlightened. For the Blessed One was the arouser of the unarisen path, the producer of the unproduced path, the declarer of the undeclared path; he was the knower of the path, the finder of the path, the one skilled in the path. But his disciples now abide following that path and become possessed of it afterwards.”

§ 6. But this discussion between the venerable Ānanda and the brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna was interrupted; for then the brahmin Vassakāra, the chief minister of Magadha, 1033 while supervising the work at Rājagaha, went to the venerable Ānanda at the workplace of the brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna.

[1033:- See DN 16.1.2–5/iii.72–76.]

He exchanged greetings with the venerable Ānanda, and when this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and asked the venerable Ānanda: “For what discussion are you sitting together here now, Master Ānanda? And what was your discussion that was interrupted?”
“ Brahmin , the brahmin Gopaka Moggall̄na asked me: ‘Master Ānanda, is there any single bhikkhu who possesses in each and every way all those qualities that were possessed by Master Gotama, accomplished and fully enlightened?’ I replied to the brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna: ‘There is no single bhikkhu, brahmin, who possesses in each and every way all those qualities that were possessed by the Blessed One, accomplished and fully enlightened. For the Blessed One was the arouser of the unarisen path [9]…But his disciples now abide following that path and become possessed of it afterwards.’ This was our discussion that was interrupted when you arrived.”

§ 7. “Is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu who was appointed by Master Gotama thus: ‘He will be your refuge when I am gone,’ and whom you now have recourse to?”
“There is no single bhikkhu, brahmin, who was appointed by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened, thus: ‘He will be your refuge when I am gone,’ and whom we now have recourse to.”

§ 8. “But is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu who has been chosen by the Sangha and appointed by a number of elder bhikkhus thus: ‘He will be our refuge after the Blessed One has gone,’ and whom you now have recourse to?”

§ 9. “There is no single bhikkhu, brahmin, who has been chosen by the Sanghaand appointed by a number of elder bhikkhus thus: ‘He will be our refuge after the Blessed One has gone,’ and whom we now have recourse to.”

“But if you have no refuge, Master Ānanda, what is the cause for your concord?”
“We are not without a refuge, brahmin. We have a refuge; we have the Dhamma as our refuge.”

§ 10. “But when you were asked: ‘Is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu who was appointed by Master Gotama thus: “He will be your refuge when I am gone,” and whom you now have recourse to?’ you answered: ‘There is no such single bhikkhu… whom we now have recourse to.’

When you were asked: ‘Is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu who has been chosen by the Sangha and appointed by a number of elder bhikkhus thus: “He will be our refuge after the Blessed One has gone,” and whom you now have recourse to?’ you answered: ‘There is no such single bhikkhu…[10]…whom we now have recourse to.’

When you were asked: ‘But if you have no refuge, Master Ānanda, what is the cause for your concord?’ you answered: ‘We are not without a refuge, brahmin. We have a refuge; we have the Dhamma as our refuge.’ Now how should the meaning of these statements be regarded, Master Ānanda?”

“Brahmin, the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened, has prescribed the course of training for bhikkhus and he has laid down the P̄atimokkha.

Patimokka

On the Uposatha day as many of us as live in dependence upon a single village district meet together in unison, and when we meet we ask one who knows the Pātimokkha to recite it. If a bhikkhu remembers an offence or a transgression while the Pātimokkha is being recited, we make him act in accordance with the Dhamma, in accordance with the instructions. It is not the worthy ones that make us act; it is the Dhamma that makes us act.”1034

[1034:- The import of this statement is that the Sangha is not governed by the personal judgements of its members but by the Dhamma and disciplinary code laid down for it by the Buddha. In this the bhikkhus follow the Buddha’s final injunction: “What I have taught and explained to you as Dhamma and Discipline will, at my passing, be your teacher” (DN 16.6.1/ii.154).]

§ 11. “Is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu whom you now honour, respect, revere, and venerate, and on whom you live in dependence honouring and respecting him?”
“There is a single bhikkhu, brahmin, whom we now honour, respect, revere, and venerate, and on whom we live in dependence honouring and respecting him.”

§ 12. “But when you were asked: ‘Is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu who was appointed by Master Gotama…?’ you answered ‘There is no such single bhikkhu…’

When you were asked: ‘Is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu who has been chosen by the Sangha…?’ [11] you answered: ‘There is no such single bhikkhu…’

When you were asked: ‘Is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu whom you honour, respect, revere, and venerate, and on whom you live in dependence honouring and respecting him?’ you answered: ‘There is such a single bhikkhu whom we now honour…and on whom we live in dependence honouring and respecting him.’ Now how should the meaning of these statements be regarded, Master Ānanda?”

§ 13. “There are, brahmin, ten qualities inspiring confidence that have been declared by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened. When these qualities are found in anyone among us, we honour, respect, revere, and venerate him, and live in dependence on him honouring and respecting him.

§ 13. What are the ten?
(1) “Here, brahmin, a bhikkhu is virtuous, he dwells restrained with the restraint of the Pātimokkha, he is perfect in conduct and resort, and seeing fear in the slightest faults, he trains himself by undertaking the training precepts.

§ 15. (2) “He has learned much, remembers what he has learned, and consolidates what he has learned. Such teachings as are good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, and which affirm a holy life that is utterly perfect and pure—such teachings as these he has learned much of, remembered, mastered verbally, investigated with the mind, and penetrated well by view.

§ 16.(3) “He is content with his robes, almsfood, resting place, and medicinal requisites.

§ 17.(4) “He obtains at will, without trouble or difficulty, the four jhānas that constitute the higher mind and provide a pleasant abiding here and now.

§ 18.(5) “He wields the various kinds of supernormal power: having been one, he becomes many; having been many, he becomes one; he appears and vanishes; he goes unhindered through a wall, through an enclosure, through a mountain as though through space; he dives in and out of the earth as though it were water; he walks on water without sinking as though it were earth; [12] seated crosslegged, he travels in space like a bird; with his hand he touches and strokes the moon and sun so powerful and mighty; he wields bodily mastery even as far as the Brahma-world.

§ 19. (6) “With the divine ear element, which is purified and surpasses the human, he hears both kinds of sounds, the divine and the human, those that are far as well as near.

§ 20. (7)

  • “He understands the minds of other beings, of other persons, having encompassed them with his own mind.
  • He understands a mind affected by lust as affected by lust and a mind unaffected by lust as unaffected by lust;
  • he understands a mind affected by hate as affected by hate and a mind unaffected by hate as unaffected by hate;
  • he understands a mind affected by delusion as affected by delusion and a mind unaffected by delusion as unaffected by delusion;
  • he understands a contracted mind as contracted and a distracted mind as distracted; he understands an exalted mind as exalted and an unexalted mind as unexalted;
  • he understands a surpassed mind as surpassed and an unsurpassed mind as unsurpassed;
  • he understands a concentrated mind as concentrated and an unconcentrated mind as unconcentrated;
  • he understands a liberated mind as liberated and an unliberated mind as unliberated.

§ 21. (8) “He recollects his manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two births that is, one birth, two births, three births, four births, five births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty births, a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births, many aeons of world contraction, many aeons of world-expansion, many aeons of world-contraction and expansion: ‘There I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared elsewhere; and there too I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, [348] such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared here.’ Thus with their aspects and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives.

§ 22. (9) “With the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and he understands how beings pass on according to their actions.

§ 23.(10) “By realising for himself with direct knowledge, he here and now enters upon and abides in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints.

“These, brahmin, are the ten qualities inspiring confidence that have been declared by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened.

When these qualities are found in anyone among us, we honour, respect, revere, and venerate him, and live in dependence on him honouring and respecting him.” [13]

§ 24. When this was said, the brahmin Vassakāra, the minister of Magadha, said to General Upananda:
“What do you think, general? When these worthy ones honour one who should be honoured, respect one who should be respected, revere one who should be revered, and venerate one who should be venerated, surely they honour one who should be honoured…and venerate one who should be venerated.

For if these worthy ones did not honour, respect, revere, and venerate such a person, then whom could they honour, respect, revere, and venerate, and on whom could they live in dependence honouring and respecting?”

§ 25. Then the brahmin Vassakāra, the minister of Magadha, said to the venerable Ānanda:
“Where is Master Ānanda living now?”
“Now I am living in the Bamboo Grove, brahmin.”
“I hope, Master Ānanda, that the Bamboo Grove is pleasant, quiet and undisturbed by voices, with an atmosphere of seclusion, remote from people, favourable for retreat.”
“Indeed, brahmin, that the Bamboo Grove is pleasant… favourable for retreat is because of such guardian protectors as yourself.”


“Indeed, Master Ānanda, that the Bamboo Grove is pleasant…favourable for retreat is because of the worthy ones who are meditators and cultivate meditation. The worthy ones are meditators and cultivate meditation.

On one occasion, Master Ānanda, Master Gotama was living at Vesālī in the Hall with the Peaked Roof in the Great Wood. Then I went there and approached Master Gotama, and in many ways he gave a talk about meditation. Master Gotama was a meditator and cultivated meditation, and he praised every type of meditation.”

§ 26. “The Blessed One, brahmin, did not praise every type of meditation, nor did he condemn every type of meditation.

What kind [14] of meditation did the Blessed One not praise?

Here, brahmin, someone abides with his mind obsessed by sensual lust, a prey to sensual lust, and he does not understand as it actually is the escape from arisen sensual lust. While he harbours sensual lust within, he meditates, premeditates, out-meditates, and mismeditates.1035

[1035:- Jhāyanti pajjhāyanti nijjhāyanti apajjhāyanti. Though the verbs individually do not have an established pejorative sense, the string is obviously intended as a denigration. At MN 108.26 the four verbs are used to describe the meditation of one whose mind is obsessed by the five hindrances.]

He abides with his mind obsessed by ill will, a prey to ill will
…with his mind obsessed by sloth and torpor, a prey to sloth and torpor
…with his mind obsessed by restlessness and remorse, a prey to restlessness and remorse
…with his mind obsessed by doubt, a prey to doubt, and he does not understand as it actually is the escape from arisen doubt.
While he harbours doubt within, he meditates, premeditates, outmeditates, and mismeditates. The Blessed One did not praise that kind of meditation.

§ 27. “And what kind of meditation did the Blessed One praise?

Here, brahmin, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhāna…
With the stilling of applied and sustained thought, he enters upon and abides in the second jhāna…
With the fading away as well of rapture… he enters upon and abides in the third jh̄na…
With the abandoning of pleasure and pain… he enters upon and abides in the fourth jhāna…
The Blessed One praised that kind of meditation.”

§ 28. “It seems, Master Ānanda, that Master Gotama censured that kind of meditation that should be censured and praised that kind of meditation that should be praised. And now, Master Ānanda, we depart. We are busy and have much to do.”
“You may go, brahmin, at your own convenience.” [15]

Then the brahmin Vassakāra, the minister of Magadha, having delighted and rejoiced in the venerable Ānanda’s words, rose from his seat and departed.

§ 29. Then, soon after he had left, the brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna said to the venerable Ānanda: “Master Ānanda has not yet answered what we asked him.”

“Did we not tell you, brahmin: ‘There is no single bhikkhu, brahmin, who possesses in each and every way all those qualities that were possessed by the Blessed One, accomplished and fully enlightened.

For the Blessed One was the arouser of the unarisen path, the producer of the unproduced path, the declarer of the undeclared path; he was the knower of the path, the finder of the path, the one skilled in the path. But his disciples now abide following that path and become possessed of it afterwards’?”