060 – The Incontrovertible Teaching

MN 02-01-10 Apannaka Sutta
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First Track of Ven Bhikku Bodhi’s exposition


Second Track of Ven Bhikku Bodhi’s exposition

§ 1. THUS HAVE I HEARD.
On one occasion the Blessed One was wandering in the Kosalan country with a large Sangha of bhikkhus, and eventually he arrived at a Kosalan brahmin village named Sala.

§ 2. The brahmin householders of Sala heard: “The recluse Gotama, the son of the Sakyans who went forth from a Sakyan clan, has been wandering in the Kosalan country [401] with a large Sangha of bhikkhus and has come to Sala. Now a good report of Master Gotama has been spread to this effect:

 ‘That Blessed One is accomplished, fully enlightened, perfect in true knowledge and conduct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, enlightened, blessed. He declares this world with its gods, its Maras, and its Brahmas, this generation with its recluses and brahmins, its princes and its people, which he has himself realised with direct knowledge. He teaches the Dhamma good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, and he reveals a holy life that is utterly perfect and pure.’ Now it is good to see such arahants.”

§ 3. Then the brahmin householders of Sala went to the Blessed One. Some paid homage to the Blessed One and sat down at one side; some exchanged greetings with him, and when this courteous and amiable talk was finished, sat down at one side; some extended their hands in reverential salutation towards the Blessed One and sat down at one side; some pronounced their name and clan in the Blessed One’s presence and sat down at one side; some kept silent and sat down at one side.

§ 4. When they were seated, the Blessed One asked them:
“Householders, is there any teacher agreeable to you in whom you have acquired faith supported by reasons?”619

[619:- MA: The Buddha began by asking this question because the village of Sala was situated at the entrance to a forest, and many recluses and brahmins of diverse creeds would stay there overnight, expounding their own views and tearing down the views of their opponents. This left the villagers perplexed, unable to commit themselves to a particular teaching.]

No, venerable sir, there is no teacher agreeable to us in whom we have acquired faith supported by reasons.”
“Since, householders, you have not found an agreeable teacher, you may undertake and practise this incontrovertible teaching;620

[620:- Apannaka dhamma. MA explains this as a teaching that is uncontradictable, free from ambiguity, definitely acceptable (aviraddho advejjhagami ekamsagahiko). The term also occurs at AN 3:16/i.113and AN 4:71 /ii.76.]

for when the incontrovertible teaching is accepted and undertaken, it will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time. And what is the incontrovertible teaching?621

[621:-The three views discussed in §§5, 13 and 21 are called wrong views with fixed evil result (niyatha miccha ditthi). To adhere to them with firm conviction closes off the prospect of a heavenly rebirth and the attainment of liberation. For a fuller discussion see Bodhi, Discourse on the Fruits of Recluseship, (Samannaphala Sutta. pp. 79-83.]

(1) The Doctrine of Nihilism – Nasthika Wada

§ 5. (A) “Householders!
, there are some recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this:

  • There is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed; no fruit or result of good and bad actions; no this world, no other world; no mother, no father; no beings who are reborn spontaneously; no good and virtuous recluses and brahmins in the world who have themselves realised by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world.’622 [402]
  • There is nothing given,
  • nothing offered,
  • nothing sacrificed
  • no fruit or result of good and bad actions;;
  • no this world, no other world;
  • no mother, no father;
  • no beings who are reborn spontaneously;
  • no good and virtuous recluses and brahmins in the world who have themselves realised by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world.’622 [402]

[622:- This is a morally nihilistic materialist view that denies an afterlife and kammic retribution. “There is nothing given” means that there is no fruit of giving;
“no this world, no other world” that there is no rebirth into either this world or a world beyond;
“no mother, no father” that there is no fruit of good conduct and bad conduct towards mother and father.
The statement about recluses and brahmins denies the existence of Buddhas and arahants. ]

§ 6 (B) “Now there are some recluses and brahmins whose doctrine is directly opposed to that of those recluses and brahmins, and they say thus:
‘There is (result in )what is given and what is offered and what is sacrificed;
there is fruit and result of good and bad actions;
there is this world and the other world;
there is (result in looking after) mother and father;
there are beings who are reborn spontaneously;
there are good and virtuous recluses and brahmins in the world who have themselves realised by
direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world.’

What do you think, householders?
Don’t these recluses and brahmins hold doctrines directly opposed to each other?”—
“Yes, venerable sir.”

§ 7 .(A.i) “Now, householders, of those recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘There is nothing given…..no good and virtuous recluses and brahmins in the world who have themselves realised by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world,’

it is to be expected that
they will avoid these three wholesome states,
namely, good bodily conduct,
good verbal conduct, and
good mental conduct, and
that they will undertake and practise these three unwholesome states, namely,
bodily misconduct,
verbal misconduct, and
mental misconduct.

Why is that?
Because those good recluses and brahmins do not see in unwholesome states the danger, degradation, and defilement, nor do they see in wholesome states the blessing of renunciation, the aspect of cleansing.

§ 8 .(A.ii) “Since there actually is another world, one who holds the view
‘there is no other world’ has wrong view. Since there actually is another world,
one who intends ‘there is no other world’ has wrong intention. Since there actually is another world,
one who makes the statement ‘there is no other world’ has wrong speech. Since there actually is another world,
one who says ‘there is no other world’ is opposed to those arahants who know the other world. Since there actually is another world,
one who convinces another ‘there is no other world’ convinces him to accept an untrue Dhamma; and because he convinces another to accept an untrue Dhamma, he praises himself and disparages others.

Thus any pure virtue that he formerly had is abandoned and corrupt conduct is substituted.623

And this wrong view, wrong intention, wrong speech, opposition to noble ones, convincing another to accept an untrue Dhamma, and self-praise and disparagement of others—these several evil unwholesome states thus come into being with wrong view as their condition. [403]

[623:- The Pali terms are susilya and dusilya . Since “corrupt virtue” sounds self-contradictory, “conduct” has been used in my rendering of the latter expression. Nm had used “unvirtuousness.”]

§ 9 .(A.iii) “About this a wise ma n considers thus:
‘If there is no other world, then on the dissolution of the body this good person will have made himself safe enough.624

[624 ;- He has made himself safe (sotthi) in the sense that he will not be subject to suffering in a future existence. However, he is still liable to the types of suffering to be encountered in this existence, which the Buddha is about to mention]

But if there is another world, then on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell. Now whether or not the word of those good recluses and brahmins is true, let me assume that there is no other world: still this good person is here and now censured by the wise as an immoral person, one of wrong view who holds the doctrine of nihilism.625

[625:- Naasthika-vada, lit. “the doctrine of non-existence,” is so called because· it denies the existence of an afterlife and of kammic retribution]

But on the other hand, if there is another world, then this good person has made an unlucky throw on both counts:
since he is censured by the wise here and now, and
since on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell.
He has wrongly accepted and undertaken this incontrovertible teaching in such a way that it extends only to one side and excludes the wholesome alternative.’626

[626:- His undertaking of the incontrovertible teaching “extends only to one side” in the sense that he makes himself safe with regard to the next life only on the presupposition that there is no afterlife, while if there is an after life he loses on both counts.]

§ 10 . (B.i) “Now, householders, of those recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘There is what is given…there are good and virtuous recluses and brahmins in the world who have themselves realised by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world,’ it is to be expected that they will avoid these three unwholesome states, namely, bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, and mental misconduct, and that they will undertake and practise these three wholesome states, namely, good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, and good mental conduct.

Why is that?
Because those good recluses and brahmins see in unwholesome states the danger, degradation, and defilement, and they see in wholesome states the blessing of renunciation, the aspect of cleansing.

§ 11 . (B.ii)

  • “Since there actually is another world, one who holds the view ‘there is another world’ has right view.
  • Since there actually is another world, one who intends ‘there is another world’ has right intention.
  • Since there actually is another world, one who makes the statement ‘there is another world’ has right speech.
  • Since there actually is another world, one who says ‘there is another world’ is not opposed to those arahants who know the other world.
  • Since there actually is another world, one who convinces another ‘there is another world’ [404] convinces him to accept true Dhamma; and
  • because he convinces another to accept true Dhamma, he does not praise himself and disparage others.
  • Thus any corrupt conduct that he formerly had is abandoned and pure virtue is substituted. And this right view, right intention, right speech, non-opposition to noble ones, convincing another to accept true Dhamma, and avoidance of self-praise and disparagement of others—these several wholesome states thus come into being with right view as their condition.

§ 12 . (B.iii) “About this a wise man considers thus: ‘If there is another world, then on the dissolution of the body, after death, this good person will reappear in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world. Now whether or not the word of those good recluses and brahmins is true, let me assume that there is no other world: still this good person is here and now praised by the wise as a virtuous person, one with right view who holds the doctrine of affirmation.627

[627 ;- Atthikavada: the affirmation of the existence of an afterlife and of kammic retribution] 

And on the other hand, if there is another world, then this good person has made a lucky throw on both counts: since he is praised by the wise here and now, and since on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world. He has rightly accepted and undertaken this incontrovertible teaching in such a way that it extends to both sides and excludes the unwholesome alternative.’628

[628:- His undertaking “extends to both sides” since he reaps the benefits of his view affirming the afterlife whether or not an afterlife actually exists]

(ii) The Doctrine of Non Doing
Akiriya Vada

§ 13 .(A) “Householders, there are some recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this:629

[629: This doctrine of non-doing (akiririyavāda), in the Sāmaññaphala Sutta (DN 2.17/i.52–53), is attributed to Pūra˚a Kassapa. Although on first encounter the view seems to rest on materialist premises, as the previous nihilistic view does, there is canonical evidence that Pūrana Kassapa subscribed to a fatalistic doctrine. Thus his moral antinomianism probably follows from the view that all action is predestined in ways that abrogate the ascription of moral responsibility to its agent. See Basham, History and Doctrines of the Ājı̄vikas, p. 84.]

‘When one acts or makes others act, when one mutilates or makes others mutilate, when one tortures or makes others inflict torture, when one inflicts sorrow or makes others inflict sorrow, when one oppresses or makes others inflict oppression, when one intimidates or makes others inflict intimidation, when one kills living beings, takes what is not given, breaks into houses, plunders wealth, commits burglary, ambushes highways, seduces another’s wife, utters falsehood—no evil is done by the doer. If, with a razorrimmed wheel, one were to make the living beings on this earth into one mass of flesh, into one heap of flesh, because of this there would be no evil and no outcome of evil. If one were to go along the south bank of the Ganges killing and slaughtering, mutilating and making others mutilate, torturing and making others inflict torture, because of this there would be no evil and no outcome of evil. If one were to go along the north bank of the Ganges giving gifts and making others give gifts, making offerings and making others make offerings, because of this there would be no merit and no outcome of merit. By giving, by taming oneself, by restraint, by speaking truth, there is no merit and no outcome of merit.’

§ 14 .(B) “Now there are some recluses and brahmins [405] whose doctrine is directly opposed to that of those recluses and brahmins, and they say thus:
‘When one acts or makes others act, when one mutilates or makes others mutilate…utters falsehood—evil is done by the doer. If, with a razor-rimmed wheel, one were to make the living beings on this earth into one mass of flesh, into one heap of flesh, because of this there would be evil and the outcome of evil. If one were to go along the south bank of the Ganges killing and slaughtering, mutilating and making others mutilate, torturing and making others inflict torture, because of this there would be evil and the outcome of evil. If one were to go along the north bank of the Ganges giving gifts and making others give gifts, making offerings and making others make offerings, because of this there would be merit and the outcome of merit. By giving, by taming oneself, by restraint, by speaking truth, there is merit and the outcome of merit.

’ What do you think, householders? Don’t these recluses and brahmins hold doctrines directly opposed to each other?”—
“Yes, venerable sir.”

§15 (A.i) “Now, householders, of those recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘When one acts or makes others act…there is no merit and no outcome of merit,’ it is to be expected that they will avoid these three wholesome states, namely, good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct and good mental conduct, and that they will undertake and practise these three unwholesome states, namely, bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, and mental misconduct.

Why is that?
Because those good recluses and brahmins do not see in unwholesome states the danger, degradation, and defilement, nor do they see in wholesome states the blessing of renunciation, the aspect of cleansing.

§16 . (A.ii)
“Since there actually is doing, one who holds the view ‘there is no doing’ has wrong view.
Since there actually is doing, one who intends ‘there is no doing’ has wrong intention.
Since there actually is doing, one who makes the statement ‘there is no doing’ has wrong speech.
Since there actually is doing, one who says ‘there is no doing’ is opposed to those arahants who hold the doctrine that there is doing.
Since there actually is doing, one who convinces another ‘there is no doing’ convinces him to accept an untrue Dhamma; and because he convinces another to accept an untrue Dhamma, he praises himself and disparages others.

Thus any pure virtue that he formerly had is abandoned and corrupt conduct is substituted. [406] And this wrong view, wrong intention, wrong speech, opposition to noble ones, convincing another to accept an untrue Dhamma, and self-praise and disparagement of others—these several evil unwholesome states thus come into being with wrong view as their condition.

§ 17 . (A.iii) “About this a wise man considers thus: ‘If there is no doing, then on the dissolution of the body this good person will have made himself safe enough.
But if there is doing, then on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell. Now whether or not the word of those good recluses and brahmins is true, let me assume that there is no doing: still this good person is here and now censured by the wise as an immoral person, one of wrong view who holds the doctrine of non-doing. But on the other hand, if there is doing, then this good person has made an unlucky throw on both counts: since he is censured by the wise here and now, and since on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell. He has wrongly accepted and undertaken this incontrovertible teaching in such a way that it extends only to one side and excludes the wholesome alternative.’

§ 18. (B.i) “Now, householders, of those recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘When one acts or makes others act…there is merit and outcome of merit,’ it is to be expected that they will avoid these three unwholesome states, namely, bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, and mental misconduct, and that they will undertake and practise these three wholesome states, namely, good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, and good mental conduct. Why is that? Because those good recluses and brahmins see in unwholesome states the danger, degradation, and defilement, and they see in wholesome states the blessing of renunciation, the aspect of cleansing.

§ 19 . (B.ii)

  • “Since there actually is doing, one who holds the view ‘there is doing’ has right view.
  • Since there actually is doing, one who intends ‘there is doing’ has right intention.
  • Since there actually is doing, one who makes the statement ‘there is doing’ has right speech.
  • Since there actually is doing, one who says ‘there is doing’ is not opposed to those arahants who hold the doctrine that there is doing.
  • Since there actually is doing, one who convinces another ‘there is doing’ convinces him to accept true Dhamma; [407] and
  • because he convinces another to accept true Dhamma, he does not praise himself and disparage others.

Thus any corrupt conduct that he formerly had is abandoned and pure virtue is substituted. And this right view, right intention, right speech, non-opposition to noble ones, convincing another to accept true Dhamma, and avoidance of self-praise and disparagement of others—these several wholesome states thus come into being with right view as their condition.

§ 20 .(B.iii) “About this a wise man considers thus: ‘If there is doing, then on the dissolution of the body, after death, this good person will reappear in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world. Now whether or not the word of those good recluses and brahmins is true, let me assume that there is no doing: still this good person is here and now praised by the wise as a virtuous person, one with right view who holds the doctrine of doing. And on the other hand, if there is doing, then this good person has made a lucky throw on both counts: since he is praised by the wise here and now, and since on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world. He has rightly accepted and undertaken this incontrovertible teaching in such a way that it extends to both sides and excludes the unwholesome alternative.’

(iii) The Doctrine of Non Causality
Ahethuka Vada

§ 21 . (A) “Householders, there are some recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this:630 ‘There is no cause or condition for the defilement of beings; beings are defiled without cause or condition. There is no cause or condition for the purification of beings; beings are purified without cause or condition. There is no power, no energy, no manly strength, no manly endurance. All beings, all living things, all creatures, all souls are without mastery, power, and energy; moulded by destiny, circumstance, and nature, they experience pleasure and pain
in the six classes.’631

[630:- This is the doctrine of non-causality (ahetuka vāda) maintained by the Ājı̄vaka leader Makkhali Gosāla, called in the Sāmaññaphala Sutta the doctrine of purification by saṁsāra (saṁsārasuddhi, DN 2.21/i.54). The philosophy of Makkhali Gosāla has been examined in detail by Basham, History and Doctrines of the Ājı̄vikas, Chapters 12 and 13. A translation of the Dı̄gha commentary on this doctrine will be found in Bodhi, Discourse on the Fruits of Recluseship, pp.70–77.]

[631:- Niyati, destiny or fate, is the primary explanatory principle in Makkhali’s philosophy, “circumstance and nature”
(sangatibhava) seem to be its modes of operation in external events and in the constitution o f the individual, respectively. The six classes (abhijati) are six gradations of human beings according to their level of spiritual development, the highest being reserved for the three mentors of the Ajivakas mentioned at MN 36.5. On the six classes, see Bod.hi, Discourse on the Fruits of Recluseship, pp. 73-75. Also, AN 6:57 /iii.383-84.]

§ 22. (B) “Now there are some recluses and brahmins whose doctrine is directly opposed to that of those recluses and brahmins, and they say thus:
There is a cause and condition for the defilement of beings; beings are defiled owing to a cause and condition. There is a cause and condition for the purification of beings; beings are purified owing to a cause and condition. There is power, energy, manly strength, manly endurance. It is not the case that all beings, all living things, all creatures, all souls are without mastery, power, and energy, or that moulded by destiny, circumstance, and nature, they experience pleasure and pain in the six classes.’

What do you think, householders? [408]
Don’t these recluses and brahmins hold doctrines directly opposed to each other?”—
“Yes, venerable sir.”

§ 23 . (A.i) “Now, householders, of those recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘There is no cause or condition for the defilement of beings… they experience pleasure and pain in the six classes,’ it is to be expected that they will avoid these three wholesome states, namely, good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, and good mental conduct, and that they will undertake and practise these three unwholesome states, namely, bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, and mental misconduct. Why is that? Because those good recluses and brahmins do not see in unwholesome states the danger, degradation, and defilement, nor do they see in wholesome states the blessing of renunciation, the aspect of cleansing.

§ 24. (A.ii)

  • “Since there actually is causality, one who holds the view ‘there is no causality’ has wrong view.
  • Since there actually is causality, one who intends ‘there is no causality’ has wrong intention.
  • Since there actually is causality, one who makes the statement ‘there is no causality’ has wrong speech.
  • Since there actually is causality, one who says ‘there is no causality’ is opposed to those arahants who hold the doctrine of causality.
  • Since there actually is causality, one who convinces another ‘there is no causality’ convinces him to accept an untrue Dhamma; and
  • because he convinces another to accept an untrue Dhamma, he praises himself and disparages others.
  • Thus any pure virtue that he formerly had is abandoned and corrupt conduct is substituted.

And this wrong view, wrong intention, wrong speech, opposition to noble ones, convincing another to accept an untrue Dhamma, and self-praise and disparagement of others—these several evil unwholesome states thus come into being with wrong view as their condition.

§ 25 . (A.iii) “About this a wise man considers thus:
‘If there is no causality, then on the dissolution of the body this good person will have made himself safe enough.
But if there is causality, then on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell.

Now whether or not the word of those good recluses and brahmins is true, let me assume that there is no causality:
still this good person is here and now censured by the wise as an immoral person, one of wrong view who holds the doctrine of non-causality.

But on the other hand, if there is causality, then this good person has made an unlucky throw on both counts: [409] since he is censured by the wise here and now, and since on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell. He has wrongly accepted and undertaken this incontrovertible teaching in such a way that it extends only to one side and excludes the wholesome alternative.’

§ 26 . (B.i) “Now, householders, of those recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘There is a cause and condition for the defilement of beings… they experience pleasure and pain in the six classes,’ it is to be expected that they will avoid these three unwholesome states, namely, bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, and mental misconduct, and that they will undertake and practise these three wholesome states, namely, good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, and good mental conduct.

Why is that?
Because those good recluses and brahmins see in unwholesome states the danger, degradation, and defilement, and they see in wholesome states the blessing of renunciation, the aspect of cleansing.

§ 27. (B.ii)

  • “Since there actually is causality, one who holds the view ‘there is causality’ has right view.
  • Since there actually is causality, one who intends ‘there is causality’ has right intention.
  • Since there actually is causality, one who makes the statement ‘there is causality’ has right speech.
  • Since there actually is causality, one who says ‘there is causality’ is not opposed to those arahants who hold the doctrine of causality.
  • Since there actually is causality, one who convinces another ‘there is causality’ convinces him to accept true Dhamma; and
  • because is he convinces another to accept true Dhamma, he does not praise himself and disparage others.

Thus any corrupt conduct that he formerly had is abandoned and pure virtue is substituted. And this right view, right intention, right speech, non-opposition to noble ones, convincing another to accept true Dhamma, and avoidance of self-praise and disparagement of others—these several wholesome states thus come into being with right view as their condition.

§ 28 .(B.iii) “About this a wise man considers thus: ‘If there is causality, then on the dissolution of the body, after death, this good person will reappear in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world. Now whether or not the word of those good recluses and brahmins is true, let me assume that there is no causality: still this good person is here and now praised by the wise as a virtuous person, one with right view who holds the doctrine of causality. And on the other hand, if there is [410] causality, then this good person has made a lucky throw on both counts: since he is praised by the wise here and now, and since on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world. He has rightly accepted and undertaken this incontrovertible teaching in such a way that it extends to both sides and excludes the unwholesome alternative.’

(iv) There are No Immaterial Realms

§ 30. “Householders, there are some recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘There are definitely no immaterial realms.’632

[632:- This is a denial of the four immaterial planes of existence, the objective counterparts of the four immaterial meditative attainments.]

“Now there are some recluses and brahmins whose doctrine is directly opposed to that of those recluses and brahmins, and they say thus:
‘There definitely are immaterial realms.’

What do you think, householders?
Don’t these recluses and brahmins hold doctrines directly opposed to each other?”—
“Yes, venerable sir.”

§ 31 .“About this a wise man considers thus:
‘These good recluses and brahmins hold the doctrine and view “there are definitely no immaterial realms,” but that has not been seen by me.

And these other good recluses and brahmins hold the doctrine and view “there definitely are immaterial realms,” but that has not been known by me. If, without knowing and seeing, I were to take one side and declare: “Only this is true, anything else is wrong,” that would not be fitting for
me. Now as to the recluses and brahmins who hold the doctrine and view “there definitely are no immaterial realms,” if their word is true then it is certainly still possible that I might reappear [after death] among the gods of the fine-material realms who consist of mind.633

[633:- These are the gods of the planes corresponding to the four jhanas. They possess bodies of subtle matter, unlike the gods of the immaterial planes who consist entirely of mind without any admixture of matter.]

But as to the recluses and brahmins who hold the
doctrine and view “there definitely are immaterial realms,” if their word is true then it is certainly possible that I might reappear [after death] among the gods of the immaterial realms who consist of perception. The taking up of rods and weapons, quarrels, brawls, disputes, recrimination, malice, and false speech are seen to occur based on material form, but this does not exist at all in the immaterial realms.’ After reflecting thus, he practises the way to disenchantment with material forms, to the fading away and cessation of material forms.634

[634:-MA: Even though the wise man discussed here has doubts about the existence of the immaterial planes, he attains the fourth jhana, and on the basis of that he attempts to attain the immaterial absorptions. If he fails he is certain of rebirth in the fine-material planes, but if he succeeds he will be reborn in the immaterial planes. Thus for him this wager is an “incontrovertible teaching.”]

(v) THERE IS NO CESSATION OF BEING

§ 32 . “Householders, there are some recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘There is definitely no cessation of being.’635

[635: MA: Cessation of being (bhavanirodha) here is Nibbana.]

§ 33 . “Now there are some recluses and brahmins whose doctrine is directly opposed to that of those recluses and brahmins, and they say thus:
‘There definitely [411] is a cessation of being.’

What do you think, householders?
Don’t these recluses and brahmins hold doctrines directly opposed to each other?”—
“Yes, venerable sir.”

§ 34 . “About this a wise man considers thus:
‘These good recluses and brahmins hold the doctrine and view
“there is definitely no cessation of being,”
but that has not been seen by me.

And these other good recluses and brahmins hold the doctrine and view
“there definitely is a cessation of being,”
but that has not been known by me.

If, without knowing and seeing, I were to take one side and declare: “Only this is true, anything else is wrong,” that would not be fitting for me.

Now as to the recluses and brahmins who hold the doctrine and view “there definitely is no cessation of being,” if their word is true then it is certainly still possible that I might reappear [after death] among the gods of the immaterial realms who consist of perception.

But as to the recluses and brahmins who hold the doctrine and view “there definitely is a cessation of being,” if their word is true then it is possible that I might here and now attain final Nibbāna.

The view of those good recluses and brahmins who hold the doctrine and view “there definitely is no cessation of being” is close to lust, close to bondage, close to delighting, close to holding, close to clinging; but the view of those good recluses and brahmins who hold the doctrine and view “there definitely is cessation of being” is close to non-lust, close to non-bondage, close to non-delighting, close to non-holding, close to non-clinging.’ After reflecting thus, he practises the way to disenchantment with being, to the fading away and cessation of being.636

[636:- MA: Even though this person has doubts about the existence of Nibbana, he attains the eight meditative attainments, and then, using one of those attainments as a basis, he develops insight, thinking: “If there is cessation, then I will reach arahantship and attain Nibbana.” If he fails he is certain of rebirth in the immaterial planes, but if he succeeds he reaches arahantship and attains Nibbana.]

(vi) Four Kinds of Persons

§ 35 . .“Householders, there are four kinds of persons to be found existing in the world.
What four?

  • Here a certain kind of person torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself.
  • Here a certain kind of person torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others.
  • Here a certain kind of person torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself, and he also torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others.
  • Here a certain kind of person does not torment himself or pursue the practice of torturing himself, and he does not torment others or pursue the practice of torturing others. [412] Since he torments neither himself nor others, he is here and now hungerless, extinguished, and cooled, and he abides experiencing bliss, having himself become holy.

§ 36. “What kind of person, householders, torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself?

Here a certain person goes naked, rejecting conventions…(as Sutta 51, §8) Here a certain person goes naked, rejecting conventions, licking his hands, not coming when asked, not stopping when asked; he does not accept food brought or food specially made or an invitation to a meal; he receives nothing from a pot, from a bowl, across a threshold, across a stick, across a pestle, from two eating together, from a pregnant woman, from a woman giving suck, from a woman in the midst of men, from where food is advertised to be distributed, from where a dog is waiting, from where flies are buzzing; he accepts no fish or meat, he drinks no liquor, wine, or fermented brew. He keeps to one house, to one morsel; he keeps to two houses to two morsels;…he keeps to seven houses, to seven morsels. He lives on one saucerful a day, on two saucerfuls a day…on seven saucerfuls a day. He takes food once a day, [343] once every two days…once every seven days; thus even up to once every fortnight, he dwells pursuing the practice of taking food at stated intervals.

He is an eater of greens or millet or wild rice or hide-parings or moss or ricebran or rice-scum or sesamum flour or grass or cowdung. He lives on forest roots and fruits, he feeds on fallen fruits. He clothes himself in hemp, in hemp-mixed cloth, in shrouds, in refuse rags, in tree bark, in antelope hide, in strips of antelope hide, in kusa-grass fabric, in bark fabric, in wood-shavings fabric, in head-hair wool, in animal wool, in owls’ wings. He is one who pulls out hair and beard, pursuing the practice of pulling out hair and beard. He is one who stands continuously, rejecting seats. He is one who squats continuously, devoted to maintaining the squatting position. He is one who uses a mattress of spikes; he makes a mattress of spikes his bed. He dwells pursuing the practice of bathing in water three times daily including the evening. Thus in such a variety of ways he dwells pursuing the practice of tormenting and mortifying the body.

…Thus in such a variety of ways he dwells pursuing the practice of tormenting and mortifying the body. This is called the kind of person who torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself.

§ 37. “What kind of person, householders, torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others?

Here a certain person is a butcher of sheep , a butcher of pigs, a fowler, a trapper of wild beasts, a hunter, a fisherman, a thief, an executioner, a prison warden, or one who follows any other such bloody occupation. This is called the kind of person who torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others or one who follows any other such bloody occupation. This is called the kind of person who torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others.

§ 38. “What kind of a person, householders, torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself and also torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others?

Here some person is a head-anointed noble king or a well-to-do brahmin 548

[548:- This passage shows the practice of one who torments himself in the hope of gaining merit and then offers sacrifices that involve the slaughter of many animals and the oppression of his workers]

Having had a new sacrificial temple built to the east of the city, and having shaved off his hair and beard, dressed himself in rough hide, and greased his body with ghee and oil, scratching his back with a deer’s horn, he enters the sacrificial temple together with his chief queen and his brahmin high priest.
There he lies down on the bare ground strewn with grass. The king lives on the milk in the first teat of a cow with a calf of the same colour [344] while the chief queen lives on the milk in the second teat and the brahmin high priest lives on the milk in the third teat; the milk in the fourth teat they pour onto the fire, and the calf lives on what is left. He says thus: ‘Let so many bulls be slaughtered for sacrifice, let so many bullocks be slaughtered for sacrifice, let so many heifers be slaughtered for sacrifice, let so many goats be slaughtered for sacrifice, let so many sheep be slaughtered for sacrifice, let so many trees be felled for the sacrificial posts, let so much grass be cut for the sacrificial grass.’ And then his slaves, messengers, and servants make preparations, weeping with tearful faces, being spurred on by threats of punishment and by fear. This is called the kind of person who torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself and
who torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others.

And then his slaves, messengers, and servants make preparations, weeping with tearful faces, being spurred on by threats of punishment and by fear. This is called the kind of person who torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself and who torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others.

§ 39 . “What kind of person, householders, does not torment himself or pursue the practice of torturing himself and does not torment others or pursue the practice of torturing others—the one who, since he torments neither himself nor others, is here and now hungerless, extinguished, and cooled, and abides experiencing bliss, having himself become holy?

§ 40-55 . “Here, householders, a Tathāgata appears in the world…(as Sutta 51, §§12-27) [413]…He understands: ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.’

§ 41 . “A householder or householder’s son or one born in some other clan hears that Dhamma. On hearing the Dhamma he acquires faith in the Tathagata. Possessing that faith, he considers thus: ‘Household life is crowded and dusty; life gone forth is wide open. It is not easy, while living in a home, to lead the holy life utterly perfect and pure as a polished shell. Suppose I shave off my hair and beard, put on the yellow robe, and go forth from the home life into homelessness.’

  • abandoning the killing of living beings, he abstains from killing living beings; with rod and weapon laid.aside, gentle and kindly, he abides compassionate to all living beings.
  • Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given; taking only what is given, expecting only what is given, by not stealing he abides in purity.
  • Abandoning incelibacy, he observes celibacy, living apart, abstaining from the vulgar practice of sexual intercourse.
  • “Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech; he speaks truth, adheres to truth, is trustworthy and reliable, one who is no deceiver of the world. Abandoning malicious speech, he abstains from malicious speech; he does not repeat elsewhere what he has heard here in order to divide [those people] from these, nor does he repeat to these people what he has heard elsewhere in order to divide [these people] from those;
  • thus he is one who reunites those who are divided, a promoter of friendships, who enjoys concord, rejoices in concord, delights in concord, a speaker of words that promote concord.
  • Abandoning harsh speech, he abstains from harsh speech; he speaks such words as are gentle, pleasing to the ear, and lovable, as go to the heart, are courteous, desired by many and agreeable to many. Abandoning gossip, he abstains from gossip; he speaks at the right time, speaks what is fact, speaks on what is good, speaks on the Dhamma and the Discipline; at the right time he speaks such words as are worth recording, reasonable, moderate, and beneficial.
  • “He abstains from injuring seeds and plants.
  • He practises eating only in one part of the day, abstaining from eating at night and outside the proper time.
  • He abstains from dancing, singing, music, and theatrical shows.
  • He abstains from wearing garlands, smartening himself with scent, and embellishing himself with unguents.
  • He abstains from high and large couches.
  • He abstains from accepting gold and silver.
  • He abstains from accepting raw grain.
  • He abstains from accepting raw meat.
  • He abstains from accepting women and girls.
  • He abstains from accepting men and accepting goats and sheep.
  • He abstains from accepting fowl and pigs
  • He abstains from accepting elephants, cattle, horses, and mares.
  • He abstains from accepting fields and land.
  • He abstains from going on errands and running messages.
  • He abstains from buying and selling.
  • He abstains from false weights, false metals, and false measures. [346]
  • He abstains from cheating, deceiving, defrauding, and trickery.
  • He abstains from wounding, murdering, binding, brigandage, plunder, and violence.

§ 42 . “Having thus gone forth and possessing the bhikkhus training and way of life,

§ 43.  “He becomes content with robes to protect his body  and with almsfood to maintain his stomach, and wherever he goes he sets out taking only these with him.

eagle

Just as a bird, wherever it goes, flies with its wings as its only burden, so too, the bhikkhu becomes content with robes to protect his body and with almsfood to maintain his stomach, and wherever he goes he sets out taking only these with him. Possessing this aggregate of noble virtue, he experiences within himself a bliss that is blameless.

§ 44 . “On seeing a form with the eye, he does not grasp at its signs and features. Since, if he left the eye faculty   unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief might invade him, he practises the way of its restraint, he guards the eye faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the eye faculty.

On hearing a sound with the ear…
On smelling an odour with the nose…
On tasting a flavour with the tongue…
On touching a tangible with the body…
On  cognizing a mind-object with the mind, he does not grasp at its signs and features. Since, if he left the mind faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief might invade him, he practises the way of its restraint, he guards the mind faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the mind faculty. Possessing this noble restraint of the faculties, he experiences within himself a bliss that is unsullied.

§ 44 . “He becomes one who acts in full awareness when going forward and returning;

  • who acts in full awareness when looking ahead and looking away;
  • who acts in full awareness when flexing and extending his limbs;
  • who acts in full awareness when wearing his robes and carrying his outer robe and bowl;
  • who acts in full awareness when eating, drinking,  consuming food, and tasting;
  • who acts in full awareness when defecating and urinating;
  • who acts in full awareness when walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, and keeping silent.

§ 45 . “Possessing this aggregate of noble virtue, and this noble restraint of the faculties, and possessing this noble mindfulness and full awareness, he resorts to a secluded resting place: the forest, the root of a tree, a mountain, a ravine, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a jungle thicket, an open space, a heap of straw

§ 46 . “On returning from his almsround, after his meal he sits down, folding his legs crosswise, setting his body erect, and establishing mindfulness before him. [347]

  • Abandoning covetousness for the world, he abides with a mind free from covetousness; he purifies his mind from covetousness.
  • Abandoning ill will and hatred, he abides with a mind free from ill will, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings; he purifies his mind from ill will and hatred.
  • Abandoning sloth and torpor, he abides free from sloth and torpor, percipient of light, mindful and fully aware; he purifies his mind from sloth and torpor.
  • Abandoning restlessness and remorse, he abides un-agitated with a mind inwardly peaceful; he purifies his mind from restlessness and remorse.
  • Abandoning doubt, he abides having gone beyond doubt, unperplexed about wholesome states; he  purifies his mind from doubt.

§ 56 .“This, householders, is called the kind of person who does not torment himself or pursue the practice of torturing himself and who does not torment others or pursue the practice of torturing others—the one who, since he torments
neither himself nor others, is here and now hungerless, extinguished, and cooled, and abides experiencing bliss, having himself become holy.”

§ 57. . When this was said, the brahmin householders of Sālā said to the Blessed One: “Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overthrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the darkness for those with eyesight to see forms. We go to Master Gotama for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. From today let Master Gotama accept us as lay followers who have gone to him for refuge for life.”

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